Meaning of National Income:

Gross National Income, otherwise known as National Income, is the complete revenue and income procured by all enterprises and by the residents of a country, over a particular period. One can likewise characterise national income as the total value of all services and goods manufactured throughout a particular timeframe. Presently, there are a few strategies for working out national income.

The three most normal strategies are the income method, the expenditure method, and the value-added method. The value-added strategy centers around the value added to an item at each phase of its manufacturing process.

Then, the income strategy centers around the revenue or income got on the factors of production like land, labour, capital, and enterprise. Lastly, the expenditure technique centers around the different sorts of expenditure dependent on investment and consumption.

The formula for Income Method:

National Income = Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost + Net Factor

Income from Abroad

Here NDPFC = Compensation of Employees + Operating Surplus + Mixed-Income.

Here, Operating Surplus = Rent + Interest + Profit.


National income = C + G + I + X + F – D


C denotes the consumption

G denotes the government expenditure

I denote the investments

X denotes the net exports (Exports subtracted by imports)

F denotes the national resident’s foreign production

D denotes the non-national resident’s domestic production

Elements of Factor Income:

Factor pay is a fundamental piece of the income strategy. Summarising all the variable incomes inside a country for a period brought about Domestic Income or NDPFC. There are three parts of factor income, which are remuneration or compensation to workers, mixed-income, and operating surplus income.

Remuneration or Compensation to Employees (COE):

Remuneration to workers alludes to the compensation paid by a business to his/her representatives for their useful and productive services. It incorporates all money-related and non-financial advantages that representatives get, indirectly or directly Also, COE involves 3 components, these are –

Compensation in Kind:

This incorporates each and every non-financial advantage that representatives get from their managers, similar to a vehicle, clinical, educational facilities, and home. The attributed worth of such advantages ought to be remembered for national income.

In any case, facilities that are vital for work and representatives have no tact or knowledge in it ought not to be incorporated here. For example, regalia that representatives use or vehicles utilised for business purposes, and so forth, such offices are considered as transitional consumption.

Employer’s Contribution to Social Security Schemes:

It incorporates the commitment businesses make in federal retirement aid plans or employee provident funds, for example, gratuity, pension plans, employee provident funds, and so forth.

Compensation in Cash:

It comprises each financial advantage, like bonuses and rewards, commissions, dearness allowances, wages, and so forth. Be that as it may, business expenditures brought about by workers or any repayments won’t be determined under COE. Such cost is reexamined as transitional consumption of an association.

Mixed Income:

Independently employed people and unincorporated organisations produce this type of income. The mixed-income or revenue emerges when components of factor income can’t be isolated from one another. For instance, a specialist running his/her facility.

Operating Surplus

Operating surplus is additionally partitioned into 3 classes, these are –


It alludes to the interest sum got for crediting assets to an assembling or manufacturing unit. This interest involves both imputed interest and real interest. Moreover, it likewise incorporates interest paid on advances taken for manufacturing units.

In any case, it does exclude interest paid by the public authority against public debt or obligation, just as interest on customer credits. Besides, interest paid by one organisation to another is additionally excluded as it is now represented in the organisation books as a benefit or profit.

Benefit or Profit:

An entrepreneur procures benefits for his/her commitment to the organisation. It is a remaining income, which the business person acquires subsequent to paying different elements of production.


Rent emerges from the responsibility for properties. Income under this head contains both imputed real rent. Real rent is determined on properties to let out on lease or rent. While imputed rent is a lease or rent on self-involved properties—such lease is determined by the market worth of the property.


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