Propagation Constant Formula

Propagation Constant for an electromagnetic wave is represented as

\(Propagation\,constant(\gamma )=\frac{Complex\,Amplitude\,at\,the\,source\,of\,the\,wave\,(A_{0})}{Complex\,Amplitude\,at\,the\,distance\,x\,(A_{x})}\)

Where,

\(\frac{A_{0}}{A_{x}}=e^{\gamma x}\)

Propagation constant

\(\gamma =\alpha +i\beta\) \(\alpha =\,real\,part\,of\,attenuation\,constant\) \(\beta =imaginary\,part\,of\,phase\,constant\)

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Which of the following is a synthetic source of nutrients?