Balance of Payment (BOP)
The balance of payment is the statement that files all the transactions between the entities, government anatomies, or individuals of one country to another for a given period of time. All the transaction details are mentioned in the statement, giving the authority a clear vision of the flow of funds.
After all, if the items are included in the statement, then the inflow and the outflow of the fund should match. For a country, the balance of payment specifies whether the country has an excess or shortage of funds. It gives an indication of whether the country’s export is more than its import or vice versa.
Types of Balance of Payment
The balance of payment is divided into three types:
Current account: This account scans all the incoming and outgoing of goods and services between countries. All the payments made for raw materials and constructed goods are covered under this account. Few other deliveries that are included in this category are from tourism, engineering, stocks, business services, transportation, and royalties from licenses and copyrights. All these combine together to make a BOP of a country.
Capital account: Capital transactions like purchase and sale of assets (non-financial) like lands and properties are monitored under this account. This account also records the flow of taxes, acquisition, and sale of fixed assets by immigrants moving into the different country. The shortage or excess in the current account is governed by the finance from the capital account and vice versa.
Finance account: The funds that flow to and from the other countries through investments like real estate, foreign direct investments, business enterprises, etc., is recorded in this account. This account calculates the foreign proprietor of domestic assets and domestic proprietor of foreign assets, and analyses if it is acquiring or selling more assets like stocks, gold, equity, etc.
Importance of Balance of Payment
A balance of payment is an essential document or transaction in the finance department as it gives the status of a country and its economy. The importance of the balance of payment can be calculated from the following points:
- It examines the transaction of all the exports and imports of goods and services for a given period.
- It helps the government to analyse the potential of a particular industry export growth and formulate policy to support that growth.
- It gives the government a broad perspective on a different range of import and export tariffs. The government then takes measures to increase and decrease the tax to discourage import and encourage export, respectively, and be self-sufficient.
- If the economy urges support in the mode of import, the government plans according to the BOP, and divert the cash flow and technology to the unfavourable sector of the economy, and seek future growth.
- The balance of payment also indicates the government to detect the state of the economy, and plan expansion. Monetary and fiscal policy are established on the basis of balance of payment status of the country.
The above-mentioned is the concept that is elucidated in detail about ‘Balance of Payment’ for the commerce students. To know more, stay tuned to BYJU’S.