Management as an Art, Science and Profession

To decide whether management is science, art or profession, one has to comprehend the characteristics and definitions of science, art and profession and associate them with management definition and traits.

Management as an Art:

Art is the experienced and personal utilisation of subsisting information to accomplish solicited outcomes. It can be procured via education, research and practice. As art is involved with the personal utilisation of data some kind of inventiveness and creativity is needed to follow the fundamental systems acquired. The essential characteristics of art are as follows:

  • The presence of theoretical knowledge: Art assumes the presence of specific academic knowledge. Specialists in their particular fields have obtained specific elementary postulates which are appropriate to a specific sort of art. For instance, the literature on public speaking, acting or music, dancing is publicly acknowledged.
  • Personalised application: The application of this primary information differs from person to person. Art, hence, is a highly personalised notion.
  • Based on custom and creativity: Art is practical. Art includes the creative practice of subsisting intellectual knowledge. We know that music is based on 7 notes. However, what makes the style of a musician different or distinctive is his performance of these notes in an artistic way that is uniquely his own solution.

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Management as a Science:

Science is an organised collection of knowledge that emphasises definite universal truths or the action of comprehensive laws. The central characteristics of science are as follows:

  • The organised body of knowledge: Science is a precise entity of knowledge. Its systems are based on a purpose and consequence association.
  • Universal validity: Scientific conventions have global genuineness and application.
  • Systems based on experimentation: Scientific conventions are originally formed via research and then tested via repeated trial and error under the regulated situations.

Management as a Profession:

The profession can be described as an occupation upheld by specific education and practice, in which entry is limited. A profession has the following features:

  • The well-defined theory of knowledge: All services are based on a well-defined form of education that can be procured through education.
  • Restricted entry: The entrance to a profession is defined through an examination or through obtaining an educational degree. For instance, to become a chartered accountant in India an aspirant has to clear a detailed examination regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI).
  • Professional community: All professions are affiliated to a professional association which controls entry, presents a certificate of training and expresses and supports a system of government. To be qualified to study in India, lawyers have to become members of the Bar Council which monitors and regulates their actions.

Management as an Art

  • Art refers to personal and skillful application of existing knowledge to achieve desired results.
  • It can be acquired through continuous practice, creativity, personal observation and experience.
  • Examples of being an artist: Dancer, Potter, Musician, Director, Actor, Designer etc. all are artist in their respective fields.
  • A manager is also an artist as he applies his personal knowledge and experience to get the work done from his subordinates.
  • The way of getting work done by different people differs from manager to manager.
(b) APPLICATION OF FEATURES OF ART IN MANAGEMENT i. Existence of theoretical knowledge:

    • Art occupies existence of some theoretical knowledge, though it is not compulsory for every field.
    • Education in Management is imparted with the help of theoretical knowledge in various colleges and universities.
    • Examples- BBA, BBS, MBA etc.

ii. Personalized Application:

    • Art is purely a personalized application of knowledge to a particular field.
    • Similarly getting the work done by the managers is purely personalised application of their knowledge and experience and their effectiveness vary from person to person.
    • Example:
    • Voice of every singer is different;
    • Acting style of each actor is different.
    • So, the management style of every manager is different.

iii. Based on practice and creativity:

  • Performance in any art is purely based on practice and the creativity of an individual
  • It varies from person to person.
  • Similarly, every manager has his / her own unique style of functioning and delivers results differently.
  • Example:
  • Bill gates manage a team of thousands of employees.
  • Recent performance of new entrepreneurs like Rohit Bansal & Kunl Bahl of ‘Snapdeal’ has shocked the established business houses on the ability and creativity to generate revenue within a very short period of time.
  • On the basis of above discussion, we have observed that the field of management fulfills all features of art.
  • Therefore, we can say, management is an art.
Q.1- “Voice of every singer is different; acting style of each actor is different. So, the management style of every manager is different. Identity the statement and choose the correct answer.
a. Personalized Application

b. Existence of theoretical knowledge

c. Based on practice and creativity

d. None of the above

Q.2- ________________ in any art is purely based on practice and creativity.
a. Practice

b. Performance

c. Experience

d. Skills

Q.3- Which of the following is a characteristic of an art?
a. Existence of theoretical knowledge

b. Personalised Application

c. Based on practice and creativity

d. All of the above

The above mentioned is the concept, that is elucidated in detail about the Management as an Art, Science, and Profession for the class 12 Commerce students. To know more, stay tuned to BYJU’S.


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