Census Method
Census method is that process of the statistical list whereÂ all members of the populationÂ are analysed. A population relates to the set of all observations under concern. For instance, if you want to carry out a study to find out studentâ€™s feedback about the amenities of your school, all the students of your school would form a component of the â€˜populationâ€™ for your study.
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Sample Method
AÂ sampling methodÂ is a process for choosing sampleÂ members from a population. 3 common samplingÂ methodsÂ are:
 Simple random sampling
 Stratified sampling
 Cluster sampling
Census method & its advantages
Q.1 Explain the census method of collection of data. Give its merit and demerits. 
Answer: 
(A) Census method 
 A statistical investigation in which the data are collected for each and every element/unit of the population, it is termed as Census Method.
 It is also known as â€˜Complete Enumerationâ€™ or â€˜100% Enumeration or Complete survey.
 Useful in case Intensive Study is required or the area is limited.
 For example:
 Demographic data on birth and death rates, literacy; workforce, life expectancy, size and composition of a population
 Census of India conducted after every 10 years.

(B) Following are the merits of census method: 
(1) Intensive study 
 It provides intensive and indepth information covering many facets of the problems.
 For example: In a population census, Not only the number of persons is counted, but the information is also collected on various other parameters like, The number of males and females, Age, Education, Marital Status, Occupational level, Income Health Conditions, etc.

(2) Results are more accurate and reliable 
 Since in this type of investigation every item of the universe is taken into account, the conclusions are more accurate and reliable.

(B) Following are the demerits of census method: 
(1) Costly method 
 Since the data are obtained for or from each & every unit of the population, it is a very expensive method of investigation, especially in case of large size of the population.

(2) Needs more time and manpower 
 Since a large volume of data is to be collected, more time and manpower is required for its collection, analysis and interpretation.

(3) Not suitable for the large population 
 This method is meaningless in case of an infinite universe where the number of items is unlimited.

Sampling method & its advantages
Q.2 Explain sampling method of collection of data. Briefly discuss the Merits and demerits of the sampling method. 
Answer: 
(A) Sampling method 
 The sampling method is the one in which only some of the representative items of the population are selected and data are collected from these.
 Instead of collecting information for and from all the units of population, we select a sample i.e. only a few items of the population.
 Conclusions derived from the small sample are generalized for the whole population.

(B) Following are the merits of sampling method: 
(1) Economical i.e. Low cost 
 It is more economical than the Census Method, as the task of collection and analysis of data is limited only to a small sample i.e. a few units of the population.

(2) Quick results 
 In this method, only a few units are analyzed so, we get quicker results.

(3) Indispensable Or greater scope 
 Sampling becomes indispensable where census method is impracticable. For example,
 If the life of the bulbs is to be tested by the manufacturer;
 If the quality of NutBolts is to be tested.
 If Blood Test is to be carried out.
 If the quality of Prints is to be tested while printing books.

(4) Scientific approach 
 Sampling Method is more scientific than the Census Method as it is possible to determine the extent of reliability of its results.

(5) Follow up 
 Due to the small size of the sample, it is possible to crosscheck the data to test the reliability.

(6) Helpful in checking census results 
 Due to scientific nature, Sampling Method can be used to crosscheck the results of the Census Method.

(C) Following are the demerits of sampling method: 
(1) Difficult to achieve cent per cent accuracy 
 The conclusions of the Sampling Method are based only on the results of a few items taken from the whole population. So, these may not be cent per cent correct.

(2) Bias in the selection of sample 
 If the Investigator is biased, then he might select sample deliberately.
 In such cases, the selected Sample may not be the best representative of Population.

(3) Difficult to select a sample having all the characteristics of the population 
 In practice, it is very difficult to obtain a sample which truly represents the population.
 A sample may not have all the characteristics of the population.

(4) The need for specialised knowledge & training 
 It is a special technique and beyond the capability of every person.
 Its use requires specialized knowledge & training.

Difference between Census & Sample Method
Q.3 Distinguish between census method and sampling method. 
Answer: 
Basis 
Census method 
Sampling method 
(1) Nature of enquiry 
The extensive enquiry is conducted at each and every unit of the population is studied. 
The limited enquiry is conducted as only a few units of the population are studied. 
(2) Economy 
More Time, Money & Labour It requires a large amount of money, time and labour. 
Less Time, Money & Labour Relatively less money, time, and labour are required. 
(3) Suitability 
It is more suitable if the population is heterogeneous in nature. 
It is more suitable if the population is homogeneous in nature. 
(4) Reliability and accuracy 
Results are quite reliable and accurate under the Census method. 
The undersampling methodÂ results and less reliable because a high degree of accuracy is not achieved. 
(5) Organization and supervision 
It is very difficult to organize and supervise the census method. 
The sampling method is comparatively easy to organize and supervise. 
(6) Verification 
Under this method results of the investigation cannot be verified. 
Under this method,Â results can be tested taking out another small sample. 
(7) Nature of method 
Census method is an old method of investigation and it is not a very scientific method. 
The sampling method is a new and practicable method, It is a scientific method. 
The abovementioned concept is for CBSE class 11 Statistics for Census Method and Sample Method. For solutions and study materials for class 11 Statistics, visit BYJUâ€™S or download the app for more information and the best learning experience.