The Chi square formula is used in the Chi square test to compare two statistical data sets. Chi Square is one of the most useful non-parametric statistics. The Chi-Square test is used in data consist of people distributed across categories, and to know whether that distribution is different from what would expect by chance.
- A very small Chi Square test statistic means that your observed data fits your expected data extremely well.
- A very large Chi Square test statistic means that the data does not fit very well. If the chi-square value is large, you reject the null hypothesis.
Chi Square is one way to show a relationship between two categorical variables. There are two types of variables in statistics: numerical variables and non-numerical variables. The value can be calculated by using the given observed frequency and expected frequency.
Formula for Chi-Square Test
The Chi-Square is denoted by χ^{2} and the formula is:
χ^{2 }= ∑ (O − E)^{2} / E |
Where,
- O = Observed frequency
- E = Expected frequency
- ∑ = Summation
- χ^{2} = Chi Square value
Solved Examples
Question 1: Calculate the chi-square value for the following data:
Male | Female | |
Full Stop |
6(observed) 6.24 (expected) |
6 (observed) 5.76 (expected) |
Rolling Stop |
16 (observed) 16.12 (expected) |
15 (observed) 14.88 (expected) |
No Stop |
4 (observed) 3.64 (expected) |
3 (observed) 3.36 (expected) |
Solution:
Now calculate Chi Square using the following formula:
χ^{2 }= ∑ (O − E)^{2} / E
Calculate this formula for each cell, one at a time. For example, cell #1 (Male/Full Stop):
Observed number is: 6
Expected number is: 6.24
Therefore, (6 – 6.24)^{2} /6.24 = 0.0092
Continue doing this for the rest of the cells, and add the final numbers for each cell together for the final Chi Square number. There are 6 total cells, so at the end, you should be adding six numbers together for your final Chi Square number.