Difference between Money Market and Capital Market

A financial market is a place where buyers and seller come together to trade in financial assets such as bonds, stocks, derivatives, currencies, and commodities. The main objective of a financial market is to fix prices for global trade, increase capital, and transfer risk and liquidity.

Thought the financial market has various components, the two most important components are the money market and capital market. In the money market, only short-term liquid financial instruments are exchanged. Whereas, in the capital market only long term securities are dealt.

Capital Market plays a significant role in the growth of country’s economy as it provides a platform for mobilizing the funds. Similarly, the money market holds a range of operational characteristics. The article will explain what is the difference between money market and capital market. 

What is the Money Market?

A random course of financial institutions, bill brokers, money dealers, banks, etc., wherein dealing on short-term financial tools are being settled is referred to as Money Market. These markets are also called a wholesale market.

In India, money markets serve an essential objective of providing liquid cash to borrowers and fund providers for a small period of time, while keeping a balance between the supply and demand short-term term funds. The important money market instruments in India today cover call money, commercial papers, certificates of deposit, treasury bills, and forward rate agreements. 

Money Market is a disorganised market, so the dealing is done off the public exchange market, i.e. Over The Counter (OTC), within two bodies by using email, fax, online, and phones etc. It supports the industries to accomplish their working capital demand by circulating short-term funds in the economy.

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What is Capital Market?

A kind of financial market where the company or government securities are generated and patronised for the intention of establishing long-term finance to coincide the capital necessary is called as Capital Market. 

In this market, the buyers use funds for longer-term investment. The nature of the capital market is risky markets, therefore, it is not used for short-term funds investment. Most of the investors obtain the capital markets to preserve for education or retirement.

This article is a ready reckoner for all the students to learn the Difference Between Money Market and Capital Market.

Top 10 Difference between Money Market and Capital Market

Basis Money Market Capital Market
Meaning A random course of financial institutions, bill brokers, money dealers, banks, etc., wherein dealing on short-term financial tools are being settled is referred to as Money Market. A kind of financial market where the company or government securities are generated and patronised for the intention of establishing long-term finance to coincide the capital necessary is called as Capital Market.
Nature of Market Informal Formal
Financial Tools Commercial Papers, Treasury Certificate of Deposit, Bills, Trade Credit, etc., Bonds, Debentures, Shares, Asset Securitization, Retained Earnings, Euro Issues, etc.,
Organizations Commercial bank, bill brokers, non-financial institutions, the central bank, acceptance houses, and so on. The stock exchange, Commercial banks, non-banking organisations like insurance companies etc.,
Risk Factor Low High
Liquidity High Low
Purpose To achieve short term credit requirements of the trade. To achieve long term credit requirements of the trade.
Time Horizon Within a year More than a year
Merit Rises liquidity of capitals in the market. Mobilization of Economies in the market.
Return on Investment Less High

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Features of Money Market

Few general money market features are: 

  • It is fund-term market funds.

  • It’s maturity period up to one year.

  • It trades with assets that can be transformed into cash easily.

  • All the transactions take place through phone, email, text, etc.

  • Broker not required for the transaction 

  • The components of a money market are the Commercial Banks, Non-banking financial companies, and Central Bank etc. 

Features of Capital Market

Important features of the capital market are: 

  • Unites entrepreneurial borrowers and savers 

  • Deals long-term investments.

  • Agents are required.

  • It is controlled by government rules and regulations.

  • Deals in both commercial and non-commercial securities.

  • Foreign Investors.

5 Types of Money Market

Money market instruments have different securities, which can be utilised for short term borrowings. Few different types of market money are:

  • Call Money- It portrays a short term loan with maturities term starting from one day to fourteen days and it can be repaid on demand. 

  • Treasury Bill-

     It is the oldest and traditional money market instruments and practised across the globe. The instrument is declared by the Government and does not have to pay any interest. This is available at a discounted rate at the time of issue.

  • Ready Forward Contract (Repo)-

    The word repo is acquired from the phrase “repurchase agreement”. It is an agreement that specifies the sale and purchase of an asset. In India,  this agreement is prepared between different banks and sometimes between bank and RBI for short term loans. 

  • Money Market Mutual Fund-

    This is the alternative name for liquid funds, and are the lowest risk debt funds. 

  • Interest Rate Swaps- This is the latest money market instruments in India. Here, two parties sign an agreement, where one decides to pay a fixed rate of interest, and the other pay a floating rate of interest.

Types of Capital Market

The Capital Market instrument involves both the auction market and dealer market. It is classified into two sections: Primary Market and Secondary Market.

  • Primary Market:

    Here, fresh contracts are given to the people for the subscription purpose.

  • Secondary Market:

    The securities that have already been issued are exchanged among investors.

Do you know: The difference between Primary Market and Secondary Market

Money Market Examples

Because they are extremely liquid in nature, the money market recovery period is restricted to one year. Few examples of Money Market are:

  • Trade Credit

  • Commercial Paper

  • Certificate of Deposit

  • Treasury Bills

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Capital Market Examples

The capital market circulates the capital in the economy among the user and the suppliers of money.

The maturity period more than one year or sometimes it is incurable (no maturity). 

  • Stocks

  • Bonds

  • Debentures

  • Euro issues

The above mentioned is the concept, that is elucidated in detail about ‘Difference Between Money Market and Capital Market’ for the Commerce students. To know more, stay tuned to BYJU’S.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do Money Market Funds Have Fees?

Yes

Who Has The Best Money Market?

  • Sallie Mae: 2.30% Annual Pension Yield (APY)
  • Marcus by Goldman Sachs: 2.25% APY
  • FNBO Direct: 2.25% APY

What Are The Types Of Capital Markets?

Primary and Secondary markets

Give 4 Examples Of Capital Markets

  • Stocks and bonds
  • Treasury bills
  • Debentures
  • Foreign exchange

Give 4 Examples Of Money Markets

  • Certificates of Deposit (CDs)
  • Interbank loans
  • Treasury bills (T-bills)
  • Short-term securities loans

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