Anti-Mullerian Hormone

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by reproductive tissues, including the testicles in males and the ovaries in females. These hormones are produced in early pregnancy and before the delivery of a baby.

In boys:

AMH is produced by the testicles, which promotes the growth and improvement of other male reproductive organs. In boys, the level of AMH continues to be high till puberty and it begins to reduce after the stage of puberty.

In girls:

AMH inhibits the development of female reproductive organs. The AMH level in young girls continues to be low until puberty when the ovaries begin to produce it and levels increase. AMH will steadily decline over their reproductive years, becoming very low and eventually undetectable after menopause. AMH is important for a woman during her childbearing years.

Functions of Anti-Mullerian Hormone

AMH plays a vital part in sexual differentiation in the fetus.

In women:

AMH has a balancing effect on the monthly menstrual cycle.

Promotes the functioning of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) during the process of egg maturation and release (ovulation).

In men:

AMH promotes the formation of other male reproductive organs

Disorders of the Anti-Mullerian Hormone

If an adequate amount of AMH is not available during the development of a baby in the fetus, then both male and primary female organs may develop. A baby born with ambiguous genitalia may not be instantly recognized as either male or female.

What is the AMH test used for?

An Anti-Mullerian Hormone test also called the AMH test is a type of a blood test, which is performed to check the functioning of the ovaries in females.

This test checks the ability of a woman in producing eggs and its fertilization for pregnancy.

It also helps in testing the ovarian reserve – how many potential egg cells a woman has left.

In women, AMH tests are used for various diagnosis including:

  • To predict the start of menopause.
  • To find out the reason for early menopause.
  • This test helps to monitor types of ovarian cancer in women.
  • To find out the reason for the amenorrhea or the lack of menstruation.
  • It is also used to diagnose the causes for missed or delay in menstruation in young girls at the age of 15.
  • It checks infants with genitals that are not clearly identified as male or female
  • The AMH test also helps in diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Hormone Levels and the Risk Factors

Hormone Levels

Compared to boys, girls have low levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone. The function of AMH and the amount varies depending upon sex and age. The normal level of Anti-Mullerian hormone is 1.2.

In boys, the level of AMH continues to be high until puberty, when it begins to taper off.

In girls, low levels of AMH are produced, thus permitting the development of the female reproductive system.

The AMH level in young girls continues to be low until puberty and increases when the ovaries begin to produce it.

The normal AMH blood level is

Range

AMH Blood Level

High

Above 3.0 ng/ml

Normal

Above 1.0 ng/ml

Low Normal

0.6 — 0.9 ng/ml

Low

0.4 — 0.7 ng/ml

Very Low

Less than 0.3 ng/ml

The normal AMH level for age are:

In Females:

Age

Value

Younger than 24 months

Less than 5ng/mL

24 months to 12 years

Less than 10ng/mL

13–45 years

1 to 10ng/mL

More than 45 years

Less than 1ng/mL

In Males:

Age

Value

Younger than 24 months

15 to 500 ng/mL

24 months to 12 years

7 to 240 ng/mL

More than 12 years

0.7 to 20ng/mL

Risk Factors

In women, low levels of AMH results in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI).

High levels of AMH causes polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Frequently Asked Questions on Anti-Mullerian Hormone

What is a normal AMH level?

The normal AMH level is 1.5 – 4.0 ng/ml.

Does vitamin D increase AMH?

Yes, vitamin D aids in the increase in the production of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Intake of Vitamin D intake can potentially improve egg quality.

What is the normal AMH level for age 30?

The normal AMH level for age 30 is estimated to be 2.42 median AMH levels.

Can AMH be improved?

Yes, the low-level AMH can be improved by a well-balanced diet, which includes whole grains, plenty of fruit and vegetables, and other organic foods.

This article concludes the introduction to the Anti-Mullerian hormone, their level of production and functions.

To know more about the Anti-Mullerian hormone, other related topics and important questions, keep visiting our website at BYJU’S Biology.

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