DNA profiling is a method used to determine an individual or organism’s DNA characteristics. Approximately 99.9% of DNA sequences are the same in all humans. The remaining variable, DNA, is enough to identify an individual. This DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting is done using highly variable sequences that are repetitive.
First, the desired DNA is extracted and amplified using PCR techniques. Then the short tandem repeats (STR) are analysed. This technique is mostly used in forensics and paternity tests to compare two DNA samples.
Also Refer: DNA Fingerprinting
DNA sequencing is also a molecular biology technique that is used to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA sequence. This determines the physical order of nucleobases (A, T, C, G) in a DNA molecule. This sequencing technique is basic for scientific research, medical diagnosis, forensics, etc. It also requires the use of cloning or PCR techniques to amplify the given DNA sample.
Difference between DNA profiling and DNA sequencing
|DNA Profiling||DNA Sequencing|
|It is used to determine an individual or an organism’s DNA characteristics.||It is used to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA sequence.|
|It involves the analysis of STR.||It focuses on the arrangement of nucleobases in a given sequence.|
|It is mostly used in paternity tests and forensics.||It is mostly used for research and diagnostic purposes.|
Frequently Asked Questions
What are molecular biology techniques?
Molecular biology techniques involve the synthesis and analysis of RNA, DNA, and protein molecules. Some popular techniques are DNA sequencing, fingerprinting, microarrays, western blot, etc.
What is DNA barcoding?
DNA barcoding is a DNA profiling technique. Here, the sample DNA is compared with a reference library of DNA to identify the species. This involves the identification of a species rather than an individual.
What is STR analysis?
STR analysis involves comparing repeated alleles at a specific position on a chromosome (loci). Usually, this analysis is done between two or more DNA samples.
Also Read: Genome and Genomics
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