Difference between Exome and Transcriptome

Exome

All exons in a genome constitute an exome. The exon is composed of the coding sequences and the untranslated regions. These exons are transcribed into mRNA during transcription. The sequencing of exome is found to be efficient in diagnosing genetic disorders.

The human exome is composed of approximately 2,33,785 exons. They form a small fraction of the total genome. But, mutations in the exome have a larger impact on diseases.

Refer: Difference between Exons and Introns

Transcriptome

All transcribed RNA (primarily mRNA) in a cell or tissue constitute a transcriptome. They include both non-coding and coding sequences. A transcriptome is used as a tool to get an insight into cellular differentiation, transcription, phylogenetics and the carcinogenesis processes.

Transcriptome includes the exon sequences that are expressed. Though they include exons, their function differs from cell to cell, based on their structure and function.

Difference between Exome and Transcriptome

Exome

Transcriptome

An exome is a collection of all exons.

A transcriptome is a collection of transcribed RNAs.

It is constant in every cell type.

It varies according to the function and structure of the cell.

It is usually observed in the sample DNA.

It is usually observed in the sample RNA.

Also Read: Genome and Genomics

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a genome?

Genome is the sum total of genetic information in an individual. It includes the sequences of all nucleotides (DNA or RNA). Also, the genome is composed of both coding and non-coding regions. The cp DNA (chloroplast DNA) and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) are also included in the genome. Genomics is the term given to the study of the genome.

What is a translatome?

Any region of a DNA sequence from the start codon to the stop codon is called an open reading frame (ORF). A collection of all ORFs together is termed translatome. The study of translatome is called translatomics.

What is transcription?

It is a process by which a segment of DNA is transcribed to create RNA. The DNA segment is read by an RNA polymerase that eventually produces the primary transcript. These transcripts synthesise the RNA.

Extended Reading: Transcription of DNA and Central Dogma

Keep exploring BYJU’S Biology for more exciting topics.

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