Difference between Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors

Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)

The NRTI shows competitive inhibition by hindering the reverse transcriptase activity. This has an antiviral effect on most retroviruses. These NRTIs are used as antiretroviral drugs. They can also act as chain terminators for the retroviral DNA and also the host DNA. Thus, the drug shows certain side effects or toxicity. The NRTIs are usually activated by phosphorylation.

Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor

The NtRTI are similar to NRTIs. They are also chain inhibitors and show competitive inhibition. But, it removes the need for initial phosphorylation. Still, the host enzymes carry the phosphorylation to show anti-viral activity.

Difference between Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors

Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors

Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors

They undergo phosphorylation to show antiviral activity.

They do not show the initial phosphorylation. Instead, the host cells aid in the phosphorylation.

Examples – Didanosine, Zidovudine, Stavudine, Abacavir, etc.

Examples – Adefovir, Tenofir disproxyl fumarate.

Frequently Asked Questions on Difference between Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors

What is reverse transcriptase?

Reverse transcriptase is a type of enzyme that helps to create cDNA or complementary DNA from RNA. Usually, the viruses (Hepatitis and HIV) use this enzyme to make copies of their genome. Also, suitable inhibitors can be used to hinder this replication process.

What are the different types of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors?

The three main types of RTIs are – Nucleoside reverse-transcription inhibitors (NRTIs), Nucleotide reverse-transcription inhibitors (NtRTIs) and Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). There is another category called Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase translocation inhibitors (NRTTIs), which is under study.

What is islatravir?

The islatravir is a new type of antiviral that comes under the category NRTTIs. The drug is being studied for the treatment of HIV. It seems to inhibit the retrovirus through several mechanisms.

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