Photosynthesis Process

Table of Contents


“Photosynthesis is the process by which photoautotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy which can later be used as a fuel for the activities of organisms.”

The photosynthesis process requires three crucial elements to function: Water, carbon dioxide and light. If any of these elements are absent, then the process may be hindered.

Photosynthesis Process Overview

The actual process occurs during the day and two inter-related phases are involved in the process:

  • Light Dependent Reaction
  • Light Independent Reaction

Light Dependent Reaction

This reaction requires sunlight to produce energy molecules (ATP & NADPH). Moreover, photosynthesis increases with more photons (light) and consequently, more energy molecules are produced.

Light Independent Reaction

Essentially, the light-independent reaction uses the energy molecules produced by the light-dependent reaction to produce even more energy molecules.

Process of Photosynthesis Step by Step

The sunlight is absorbed by the chlorophyll in the leaves of the plants. Carbon dioxide enters the plant through structures called the stomata, which are usually found on the underside of the leaves. Water is absorbed through the roots of the plant.

The light-dependent reaction occurs during the day. At this stage, water is spilt into its elements – oxygen and hydrogen ions. Then, the ions go through a series of electron carriers, eventually leading to the accumulation of hydrogen ions. As electrons get transferred from one electron carrier to another, energy is released. In this case, ATP & NADPH are released.

The light Independent reaction uses the energy produced during light depending on the reaction to transform carbon dioxide into glucose. The transformation from carbon dioxide to glucose requires a few reactions. The same molecule produces glucose during this process.

The lower parts of the leaves have rather “spaced out” cells. This structure permits carbon dioxide to permeate into other parts of the leaves, thereby facilitating the release of oxygen.

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Frequently Asked Questions


1. What happens during the photosynthesis process?

During the photosynthesis process, light energy gets converted into chemical energy, which is later used as fuel.


2. What are the two important reactions that occur during the photosynthesis process?

The two reactions that occur during the photosynthesis process are light-dependent reactions and light-independent reaction.


3. What are the two main products released during the photosynthesis process?



4. What are the three crucial elements required for the photosynthesis process to occur?

Water, carbon dioxide and sunlight.

Further Reading: What is photosynthesis? Complete Overview

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