Cytokinins are a group of plant growth regulators which are primarily involved in performing cell division in plant roots, shoot system. This hormone helps in promoting the cell’s growth, development, differentiation, affecting apical dominance, leaf senescence, and axillary bud growth.
These hormones mostly found in all the complex plants, bacteria, mosses, and fungi. There are some 200 different types of synthetic and natural cytokinins and most of them are usually developed in the meristem of the roots. It is the name of an area of tissue in the plant that promotes cell division actively. A meristem is a place that grows on the plants like the top of the stem.
Cytokinins are usually formed in the roots and then travels across the xylem to other parts of the plant where plant growth continues such as fruits, seeds, and young leaves.
Cytokinins help in increasing the cell division by maintaining the protein production that is important for mitosis. The term Mitosis refers to a non-sexual division of cells that usually occurs in all the living things by developing additional cells for growth of the body. Mitosis occurs every day by replacing the damaged cells by allowing them for growth. There are many times when you get hurt and you lost your skin from knee, it’s the same mitosis that helps in growth of all the cells you lost and gets you the skin.
While in plants, mitosis develops some more cells that makes the plant grow. You must have played building blocks in your childhood days, from this you can think of same as plant cells. With the occurrence of this process, mitosis, a new cell is created and transported to the end of the plant by increasing its length. This is just like cementing a building block to your original structure.
- Helps in promoting cell division and growth of the plant.
- Used by farmers to increase the crops
- When applied to cotton seedlings, led to 5-10 % increase even in drought conditions.
- Plays a major role in plant pathogenesis by inducing resistance against certain disease-causing bacteria.
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