Meaning And Categories Of Poor

Who are the Poor?

A poor is an individual who does not have the minimum essential necessities of life. Street cobblers, push-cart vendors, rag pickers, women who sell flowers, beggars and vendors are some instances of poor and weak groups in urban neighbourhoods. The poor people maintain few assets and live in kutcha huts with walls built of baked mud and roofs built of grass, bamboo, thatch and wood. The poorest of them do not even have such homes. In country areas, many of them are with nothing. Even if some of them own the property, it is either dry or wasteland. Several people do not get to have even 2 meals a day. Starvation and hunger are the principal characteristics of the poverty struck families. The poor need fundamental literacy and jobs and hence have very poor economic possibilities.

Types of Poor

There are multiple ways to describe poverty. Namely:

  • Chronic poor: People who are constantly poor and those who are normally poor but who may seldom have a small amount of money (for example casual workers) are classified collectively as the chronic poor.
  • Churning poor: Another group are the churning poor who normally go in and out of poverty (for example small farmers and seasonal workers).
  • Transient poor: The seldom poor who are the rich utmost of the time but may seldom have a piece of bad luck. They are known as the transient poor.

Q.1- WHO ARE POOR? WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY URBAN POOR AND RURAL POOR?

POOR

A poor is a person does not enjoy the minimum basic necessities of life.

(1) URBAN POOR

Poor people living in urban areas include:

1. Rag pickers

2. Beggars

3. Push cart vendors

4. Street cobbler etc.

Shelter:

1. They live in kutcha house with walls made of baked mud and roofs made of grass, bamboo etc.

2. Some of them even do not have such shelters.

Living:

1. They possess few assets.

2. They do not have a fixed source of earning livelihood.

Migrants:

1. Most of the urban poor are largely the overflow of the rural poor.

2. They had migrated to urban areas in search of employment and livelihood.

(2) RURAL POOR

Poor people living in rural areas include:

1. Landless laborers

2. Cultivators with small landholdings etc.

Landless:

1. Many of the rural poor are landless.

2. Even if some of them possess land, it is only dry or waste land.

Fooding:

1. Many rural poor’s do not get to have even two meals a day.

Categories of Poor

(A)EXPLANATION

Poor people are divided into three categories.They are,

1. Chronic Poor.

2. Transient Poor.

3. Non-Poor/Never Poor.

(B)CATEGORIES OF POOR

(1)CHRONIC POOR

They usually live below poverty line.

Eg: Casual workers, landless workers etc.

They are of two types:

1. Always Poor.

2. Usually Poor.

(2)TRANSIENT POOR

They move in and out of poverty line

Eg: Small farmers, Seasonal workers, People who gamble etc.

They are of two types:

1. Churning Poor. (Small Farmers)

2. Occasionally Poor. (People who gamble)

(3)NON –POOR/ NEVER POOR

They usually live above poverty line.

Eg: Doctors, Professionals etc.

Q.2- WHAT ARE THE COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF POOR PEOPLE?

ANSWER:

(1) LACK OF BASIC AMENITIES

  • Most poor households do not have access to basic amenities like safe drinking water, electricity, etc.
  • Their primary cooking fuel is firewood and cow dung cake.

(2) STARVATION AND HUNGER

  • Starvation and hunger are the main issues of the poorest family.
  • The basic amount of food is also not available.

(3) MALNUTRITION

  • Malnutrition is another alarming issue for the poor household.
  • Unhealthy health, disability, and serious illness are a few reasons that make poor people physically weak.

(4) BIGGER FAMILY SIZE

  • Poor families are bigger in size.
  • They believe that more children will increase their earning capacity in the future.
  • This makes their economic condition worse.

(5) LIMITED ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

  • The poor lack basic literacy and skills.
  • They do not fix employment.
  • They have very limited economic opportunities.

(6) DEBT TRAP

  • Rural poor generally borrow from local moneylenders at a high rate of interest.
  • Poor people are not able to repay these debts and this pushes them into chronic indebtedness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION :

Q.1- A ______ is a person does not enjoy the minimum basic necessities of life.

a. Poor

b. Rich

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

Q.2 Doctors are covered under

a. Chronic poor

b. Transient poor

c. Non poor

d. Rural poor

Q.3 Casual workers are covered under

a. Chronic poor

b. Transient poor

c. Non poor

d. Rural poor

Q.4 Which of the following are covered under the category of Urban poor?

a. Rag pickers

b. Beggars

c. Push cart vendors

d. All of the above

ANSWER KEY

1-a, 2-c, 3-a, 4-d

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