Rural Development in India
Rural development usually refers to the method of enhancing the quality of life and financial well-being of individuals, specifically living in populated and remote areas.
Traditionally, rural development was centred on the misuse of land-intensive natural resources such as forestry and agriculture. However today, the increasing urbanisation and the change in global production networks have transformed the nature of rural areas.
Rural development still remains the core of the overall development of the country. More than two-third of the country’s people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, and one-third of rural India is still below the poverty line. Therefore, it is important for the government to be productive and provide enough facilities to upgrade their standard of living.
Rural development is a term that concentrates on the actions taken for the development of rural areas to improve the economy. However, few areas that demand more focused attention and new initiatives are:
- Public health and Sanitation
- Women empowerment
- Infrastructure development (electricity, irrigation, etc.)
- Facilities for agriculture extension and research
- Availability of credit
- Employment opportunities
Importance of Rural Development
Rural development is important not only for the majority of the population residing in rural areas, but also for the overall economic expansion of the nation.
Rural development is considered to be of noticeable importance in the country today than in the olden days in the process of the evolution of the nation. It is a strategy that tries to obtain an improved and productivity, higher socio-economic equality and ambition, and stability in social and economic development.
The primary task is to decrease the famine that exists in roughly about 70 percent of the rural population, and to make sufficient and healthy food available.
The secondary task is to ensure the availability of clothing and footwear, a clean environment and house, medical attention, recreational provision, education, transport, and communication.
Objectives of Rural Development
The objectives composed by the government in the sixth five-year plan for rural development are:
- To improve productivity and wages of rural people
- To guarantee increased and quick employment possibilities
- To demolish unemployment and bring a notable decline in underemployment
- To guarantee an increase in the standard of living of the underprivileged population
- To provide the basic needs: elementary education, healthcare, clean drinking water, rural roads, etc.
1. Explain rural development and its importance.
(A) Meaning 1. Rural development means an action plan for the economic and social upliftment of rural areas.
2. It aims at improving the quality of life of people living in rural areas.
3. It focuses on the action for the development of areas that are lagging behind in the overall development of the rural economy.
Rural development is important because of the following reasons: (i) A large proportion of population is living in rural areas 1. Rural people account for about 3/4th (75%) of the total population.
2. In 2016, 68.84% of the population accounted for the rural population.
3. They have always lagged much behind the overall progress of the economy.
(ii) Agriculture: Major source of livelihood 1. Agriculture is still a major source of livelihood in rural areas.
2. More than two-third of India’s population depends on it.
3. So, the development of agriculture will contribute to the betterment of rural areas and rural people.
(iii) Lack of basic necessities 1. Majority of poor people live in rural areas.
2. They do not have access to basic necessities of life like food, health facilities, sanitation, etc.
2. Explain the key issues in rural development. (NCERT) Answer: The key issues in rural development are: (1) Development of infrastructure ● There is a lack of infrastructure in rural areas.
● Infrastructure development like electricity, irrigation, credit, marketing, transport facilities, etc., needs to be addressed.
(2) Reduction of poverty ● The reduction of poverty is important because rural areas have the maximum poverty.
● Around 30% of the population is below the poverty line; this figure reduced to 21.92% in 2012.
● There is a serious need of taking steps for the alleviation of poverty.
(3) Development of health facilities ● Rural areas lack proper health facilities.
● Better health facilities are necessary for physical growth of individuals.
(4) Development of productive resources ● Productive resources of each locality need to be developed to enhance employment opportunities.
● It will help in diversification of production activities with a view of finding an alternative means other than crop cultivation to sustain life.
(5) Development of human resources ● There is a need to improve the quality of human resources in rural areas.
● It can be done by improving the literacy rate (especially female literacy), skill development, industrial training, etc.
Also know: Demographic Condition in Colonial India
|Multiple Choice Questions|
|Q.1 Which of the following can help in the development of human resources?|
|a. Improving literacy skills
b. Skill development
d. All of the above
|Q.2 Rural development aims at ________ .|
|a. Improving health facilities
b. Reducing poverty
c. Developing infrastructure
d. All of the above
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