Difference between Flowering and Non-flowering Plants

Flowering Plants

Flowering plants usually include the angiosperms. The angiosperms have their seeds enclosed in a fruit. They are characterised by their flowers and seeded fruits. The flowering organs of an angiosperm are specially modified to facilitate evolutionary advantage. Thus, they become distinct from other seed plants.

Flowering plants produce flowers which ensures the fertilisation process. The male and female gametophytes of flowering plants are much reduced. This allows for more rapid pollination. After pollination and fertilisation, the embryo develops into a fruit containing seeds.

Non-flowering Plants

Non-flowering plants do not produce seeds, fruits or flowers. They usually reproduce through spores. They include the cryptogams and the gymnosperms. However, gymnosperms are a seed-bearing group of plants. They have unenclosed or naked seeds that often produce cones. Examples – Ginkgo and Conifers. The life-cycle of gymnosperms are sporophyte-dominant, and their gametophytic phase is short-lived.

Difference between Flowering and Non-flowering Plants

Flowering Plants

Non-flowering Plants

They are commonly known as angiosperms.

They include the cryptogams and the gymnosperms.

They have seeds and flowers.

They do not produce seeds and flowers except for gymnosperms, which are seed-bearing and non-flowering.

They are highly evolved with true roots, leaves and stems.

Most of the non-flowering plants do not have true roots, leaves or stems.

Examples – Orchids, Grasses, Sedges.

Examples – Mosses, Ferns, Conifers

Also Read: Difference between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

Classification of plants

Frequently Asked Questions on Difference between Flowering and Non-flowering Plants

What are phanerogams?

Phanerogams or spermatophytes are seed-bearing plants. It includes both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (non-flowering plants). They have evident sex organs or phanerogamae. In gymnosperms, the seeds are naked, whereas in angiosperms, it is enclosed.

What are cryptogams?

The word Cryptogams means ‘hidden reproduction’. They are plants that do not have seeds. This includes the lower plants that reproduce through spores. Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, and Thallophytes come under this category.

What are bryophytes?

Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that are commonly found in shady and moist areas. This includes mosses, hornworts and liverworts. They are erect, thallus-like structures that are attached to the substratum by rhizoids. Moreover, these plants live in soil and depend on water for their reproduction. Thus, they are known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom.

Extended Reading: Bryophyta

Keep exploring BYJU’S Biology for more exciting topics.

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