Blood Circulatory System

The blood circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is tasked with providing oxygen and nutrients to every cell in an organism’s body.

Components of the Blood Circulatory System

The system consists of the heart and a body-wide network of blood vessels. The blood vessels that carry blood away the heart are called arteries while the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called veins. The aorta is the body’s main artery and its smaller arteries, which then lead to smaller and smaller vessels. The smallest arteries end in a small network of minuscule vessels known as the capillary network.

The Two Circulatory Systems

Our body has not one, but two types of circulatory systems:

  • Systemic circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation

Systemic Circulation is responsible for providing blood for oxygen and other vital nutrients for organs and tissues. Pulmonary circulation is the type of circulation where fresh oxygen enters the bloodstream, and simultaneously, carbon dioxide is also removed from the bloodstream.

Read More: Double Circulation – Blood Circulation in Humans

How Blood Circulates

When the heart relaxes between two heartbeats, blood circulation is said to start. The blood flows from the upper two chambers (atria) to the lower two chambers (ventricles), which results in expansion. The ventricles then pump the blood into the large arteries, in a phase called the ejection period.

The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood into the aorta in the systemic circulation. From here, the blood travels to the larger arteries, eventually ending up into the capillary network. The blood drops the required nutrients, oxygen and other crucial substances. The blood also picks up the waste products, carbon dioxide and other unwanted substances. At this point, the blood, which is low in oxygen, is collected by the veins and send towards the right atrium and into the right ventricle.

This state marks the beginning of pulmonary circulation, where the right ventricle pumps the blood with low-oxygen content into the pulmonary artery. This artery branches off into smaller arteries and eventually capillaries. In the lungs, the capillaries form a minuscule network around the air-sacs called pulmonary vesicles. At this point, carbon dioxide is released from the bloodstream and into the air in the pulmonary vesicles. The carbon dioxide leaves our body when we exhale. As we inhale, fresh oxygen enters the bloodstream through the alveoli and the blood becomes oxygen-rich. The oxygen-rich blood then travels from the lungs through the pulmonary veins and into the left ventricle. The subsequent heartbeat results in a new systemic circulation cycle.

Frequently Asked Questions on Blood Circulatory System

What is the blood circulation system?

The blood circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is tasked with providing oxygen and nutrients to every cell in an organism’s body.

What are the types of circulation in the body?

Our body has two types of circulatory systems:

  • Systemic circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation

Explore more about the blood circulatory system by registering at BYJU’S Biology.

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