Thyroid Hormones - T3 and T4

The thyroid hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland, which is located in front of the neck. These hormones are integral in the regulation of many functions and aspects of the human body, such as temperature regulation, energy levels, weight, hair, nail growth and more.

What are the Thyroid hormones?

The thyroid gland produces two hormones:

  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Thyroxine (T4)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

T3 is produced by the thyroid gland as well as in other tissues, via the removal of iodine from Thyroxine (T4).

Thyroxine (T4)

T4 is also produced by the thyroid gland under the regulation of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. It is secreted into the bloodstream and travels to organs such as the kidneys and liver. Here, thyroxine is converted into its active form – triiodothyronine.

What are the Functions of the Thyroid Hormones?

  • Thyroid hormones help with brain development and function
  • It also helps with muscle control as well as bone health
  • Regulates the metabolic rate of the body
  • Also regulates the metabolism of fat, proteins and carbohydrates
  • Thyroid hormones also help with protein synthesis
  • Increases the body’s sensitivity to catecholamines
  • Essential for the development and differentiation of cells

Thyroid Hormone Disorders

A hormone is a chemical messenger that regulates various functions in the body. Hence, if there is an imbalance, it can lead to drastic health repercussions.

  • Thyrotoxicosis is a condition where there is excess triiodothyronine in the bloodstream
  • Inflammation of the thyroid or a benign tumour can result in conditions such as Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone
  • Tumours in the pituitary gland can also cause hypothyroidism
  • Most cases of hypothyroidism are hereditary and are common among women
  • Common symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, depression, constipation and tiredness.

Frequently Asked Questions on thyroid hormones

What is the main function of thyroid hormone?

Thyroid hormones are integral in the regulation of many functions and aspects of the human body, such as temperature regulation, energy levels, weight, hair, nail growth and more.

What are the effects of thyroid hormone?

An imbalance in thyroid hormone can lead to a lot of health repercussions. The effects depend on the conditions, but most thyroid problems can have the following symptoms: weight gain, depression, constipation and tiredness.

What hormones does the thyroid produce?

The thyroid gland produces two hormones – Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)

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