In the last chapter, we learnt about the Union legislature, which included the structure and functioning of the Parliament. In this chapter, we are going to study the Union Executive. If students find any difficulty understanding the concepts related to the chapter, then they can blindly refer to MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of Social Science Chapter 3. These solutions are proved to be the correct guide for solving the textbook questions.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Choose the correct option and rewrite the statement.
(1) In India, the executive power is vested in the …………… .
(President, Prime Minister, Speaker)
(2) The tenure of the President is of ………… years.
(Three, Four, Five)
(3) The Council of Ministers is led by the ………. .
(Party chief, Prime Minister, President)
Answer 1: In India, the executive power is vested in the President.
Answer 2: The tenure of the President is of five years.
Answer 3: The Council of Ministers is led by the President.
Q2. Find and write.
(1) The President, the Prime Minister, the Council of Minister are called the –
(2) During the parliamentary session the period around 12 noon is known as –
Answer 1: The President, the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers is called the Union Executive.
Answer 2: During the parliamentary session the period around 12 noon is known as Zero Hour.
Q3. Write on following concepts in your own words.
(1) Impeachment procedure
(2) No-confidence motion
(3) Jumbo ministry
Answer 1: Impeachment procedure – The responsibility of protecting the Constitution is shouldered by the President. But if any act of the President violates the Constitution, then the Parliament has the authority to remove the President. This process is known as a process of Impeachment. Anyone House can lay the charge of violation of the Constitution and the investigation of the charge is carried out by the other House. The resolution has to be passed by special (2/3rd) majority of both the Houses of Parliament.
Answer 2: No-confidence motion – This is one of the most effective ways to keep a check on the Council of Ministers. The government stays in power till it enjoys the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha. If the members of Parliament withdraw the support, it may lead to loss of majority and the government cannot stay in power. The members of the House can move a no-confidence motion by simply expressing ‘we do not have confidence in the government’. If the motion is passed with majority support, then the Council of Ministers has to resign.
Answer 3: Jumbo ministry – This refers to huge Council of Ministers. There was a trend to keep large Council of Ministers in our country. Later, a constitutional amendment was made to limit the size of the Council of Ministers. As per this amendment, the number of ministers in the council should not be more than 15% of the total number of members in the Lok Sabha.
Q4. Answer in brief.
(1) Enumerate the functions of the Council of Ministers.
(2) How does the Parliament keep a check on the Executive?
Answer 1: The functions of the Council of Ministers is as follows:
- In a parliamentary form of government the Council of Ministers takes initiative in the process of Law-making. The scheme, policy plans etc. are drafted and discussed and then introduced in the House. The Council of Ministers has discussed important questions before making a decision.
- Education, agriculture, industry, health, foreign relations, among others, are subjects upon which the Council of Ministers has to decide specific policies or direction of work. The Parliament needs to be taken into confidence about the policy decisions taken by the government. Therefore, the Ministers of the respective departments lay their policy plans in the House to bring about a discussion on it.
- Implementation of policy is the foremost responsibility of the Council of Ministers. Once the Parliament approves the laws, the Council of Ministers implements them.
Answer 2: In a parliamentary system of government the legislature tries to keep control over the executive i.e. The Council of Ministers. The control is exercised in the lawmaking or policy making process, implementation of policies and even after that. A few ways of exercising control are:
- Discussions and Debates: Debate and discussion among the members of the House are an integral part of the lawmaking process. These debates and discussions help the members to scrutinise the policy proposals and laws and point out the shortcomings. These discussions are essential for creation of healthy laws.
- Question Hour: During parliamentary sessions, the proceedings of the House begin with questions asked by the members of the House. The concerned ministers are supposed to give satisfactory answers to these questions. Question Hour is one of the most effective ways of keeping a check over the Council of Ministers. During the question hour, members criticise the government and ask questions on various issues. Sometimes, when a member is not satisfied with the answer of the minister, arguments take place. Occasionally, the members’ walk out of the House or enter into the well of the House and give slogans to record their protest.
- Zero Hour: During the parliamentary sessions, the period around 12 noon is called ‘Zero Hour’. During this period, any question of public importance can be raised and discussed.
- No-Confidence motion: This is one of the most effective ways to keep a check on the Council of Ministers. The government stays in power till it enjoys the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha. If the members of Parliament withdraw the support, it may lead to loss of majority and the government cannot stay in power. The members of the House can move a no-confidence motion by simply expressing ‘we do not have confidence in the government’. If the motion is passed with majority support then the Council of Ministers has to resign.
Q5. Complete the concept picture.
Answer: The functions of President are as follows:
- The President summons the meeting of Parliament, prorogue the session of Parliament, sends messages to both Houses, dissolves the Parliament after the tenure is over or even before the tenure gets over.
- Bill passed by the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha must be signed by the President. Without his signature, the Bill cannot become a law.
- The President appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
- The President appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. The President also appoints the Governors of States, Chief Election Commissioner and other important officers.
- The President is the commander-in- chief of the armed forces. Decisions regarding war and peace are made by the President.
- The President has some judicial powers too. For instance, the President has the power to reduce the punishment, grant a respite or commute a sentence of a person or in special circumstances grant pardons or reprieves on humanitarian grounds.
- The President has the power to declare an emergency in case of a crisis situation arising in the country. There are three kinds of emergencies mentioned in the Constitution. (1) National Emergency (2) State Emergency (3) Financial Emergency.
Q6. Explain the term Electoral College.
Answer: The President is indirectly elected by the people of India. The common people do not vote in the election of the President. He is directly elected by elected representatives of the Central and State legislatures. The group of these parliamentarians and members of the state legislatures is known as the Electoral College.