In the Indian national movement the period from 1920 to 1947 is known as the ‘Gandhian era’. Mahatma Gandhi gave a new direction to the freedom movement with the principles of Truth, Non violence and Satyagraha. Due to the influential leadership of Mahatma Gandhi the national movement became more comprehensive. This led to the beginning of a new era in the freedom movement of India. These MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of social science history chapter 7 consists of all the questions provided in the chapter. Students are advised to take help of these solutions while solving the textbook questions.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.
(1) Gandhiji began his career in the country of ……………… .
(c) South Africa
(2) The farmers started the no-tax movement in the district of ……….. .
(3) As a protest to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Rabindranath Tagore returned the title of ………… bestowed upon him by the British Government.
(c) Rao Bahadur
Answer 1: Gandhiji began his career from the country of South Africa.
Answer 2: The farmers started the no-tax movement in the district of Kheda.
Answer 3: As a protest to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Rabindranath Tagore returned the title of Sir bestowed upon him by the British Government.
Q2. Answer the following questions in one sentence.
(1) Which restrictions were put up on the Blacks in South Africa according to the declaration of 1906?
(2) Where did Gandhiji launch the first satyagraha in India?
(3) Which officer gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Bagh?
Answer 1: In 1906, the Government declared that it was compulsory for the blacks to carry an identity card and their freedom was restricted as well.
Answer 2: The first Satyagraha movement was launched in the Champaran district of Bihar in 1917.
Answer 3: Colonel Reginald Dyer gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Bagh.
Q3. Answer the following questions in 25-30 words.
(1) Explain the philosophy of Satyagraha.
(2) Why was the Swaraj Party established?
Answer 1: Gandhiji brought in a novel technique of Satyagraha in the popular movement. Satyagraha means insistence of truth. The main objective of Satyagraha is through patience and Satyagraha an unjust person is made aware of truth and justice and also brings transformation in his views. A person following satyagraha should never use violence and untruth means, were the teachings of Gandhiji.
Later, not only in India but in many parts of the world people adopted the path of Satyagraha to fight against injustice. Gandhi’s path of Satyagraha made an impact on Martin Luther King who was struggling for the rights of the Blacks in America, as well as on Nelson Mandela in South Africa.
Answer 2: The members of Indian National Congress such as Chittaranjan Das, Motilal Nehru put up the idea of contesting elections and obstructing the work of the British government. In 1922, the Swaraj Party was established. In 1923, many members of Swaraj Party were elected in the Central Legislative Assembly and Provincial Legislative Council, mainly including Motilal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malviya, Lala Lajpat Rai and N.C.Kelkar. When the political movement in the country calmed down, then the fight in the Legislative Assembly was strengthened bythe Swaraj Party. They severely opposed the unjust policies of British. They demanded that Responsible Government should be given to India in future. They made a resolution to be passed in the Legislative Assembly for the release of political leaders from prison, to call for the Round Table Conference. But, the government rejected most of the resolutions.
Q4. Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Rowlatt Act was opposed by the people of India.
(2) Gandhiji suspended the Non-co-operation Movement.
(3) The Indians boycotted the Simon Commission.
(4) Khilafat Movement was started in India.
Answer 1: In the first world war, the Indians had helped the British. The Indians felt that after the world war is over there will be a system of governance for taking decisions for the well being of the Indians. There was growing unrest among the Indians regarding the increasing prices, taxes etc. To suppress this discontent and to suggest measures about it, a Committee was appointed under Sir Sydney Rowlatt. According to recommendations of this committee a new law was passed without considering the opposition of Indian members in the Central Legislative Assembly on 17 March 1919. This law came to be known as the ‘Rowlatt Act’.
This Act gave the right to the government to arrest anybody without any warrant or imprison without any trial. Appeal was prohibited against the punishment given through this act. The
Indians called this act the ‘Black Act’ and a tide of anger aroused all over India against this act. Gandhiji launched a Satyagraha against it. On 6th April 1919, he appealed to the Indians to follow Hartal all over India against the Act. Indians responded to this appeal on a large scale.
Answer 2: In February 1922, the Police opened fire on a peaceful procession at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. The people were angry and set fire to the police station in which along with one officer, 22 policemen were killed. Due to this incident, Gandhiji was hurt. On 12 February 1922, Gandhiji suspended the Non-co-operation Movement.
Answer 3: The reforms introduced by the Montague Chelmsford Act of 1919 were unsatisfactory. Hence there was discontent among the Indian people. On this background, the British appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. In this commission, none of the Indian members were included. Hence, the Congress decided to boycott the commission. In 1928, the commission arrived in India. Wherever it travelled, the people made demonstrations against them, by shouting the slogans like ‘Simon Go Back’.
There was a lathi charge on the demonstrators. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was leading the demonstration against the Simon Commission. The police lathi charged the demonstrators. Saunders, a police officer, attacked Lalaji with a lathi and within a few days of the attack Lalaji died.
Answer 4: Muslims all over the world regarded the ruler of Turkey as their religious leader. During the first world war Turkey fought against the British. To get the support of the Indian Muslims in the war, the British had assured that after the end of the war, Khalifa’s empire would not be harmed. But after the end of the First World War, England did not stick to its assurance. A tide of great discontent aroused among the Muslims. The movement started by Indian Muslims to support the Khalifa was called ‘Khilafat Movement’. Gandhiji thought that on this problem if the Hindus and Muslims come together and start a national movement then the government can surely be brought to its senses. Therefore, Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement. The Khilafat Committee accepted Gandhiji’s proposal of following non-co-operation to the government. Hindu-Muslim unity was seen especially during this period.
Q5. Write a short note on demand of Swaraj.
Answer: The objective of Indian National Congress of Dominion status was not acceptable to many young members. Young leaders like Pandit Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose were demanding complete independence. i.e. poorna swaraj. Due to the influence of this young group, in the Lahore session of Indian National Congress, resolution of attainment of complete independence was passed. Through this resolution, Indian National Congress gave up the objective of dominion status. From here onwards, the objective of National movement was complete independence of India.
Q6. Write short notes on:
(a) Kheda Satyagraha
(b) Workers movement at Ahmedabad
(c) Champaran Satyagraha
Answer a: Kheda Satyagraha – Due to constant famines in Kheda district, Gujrat, the crop had failed. Still land tax was forcibly collected by the Government. Gandhiji suggested that the farmers should refuse to pay the tax. The farmers began the movement for scrapping of tax at Kheda in 1918. Gandhiji accepted the leadership of this movement. Within a short period of time, the Government suspended the tax.
Answer b: Workers movement at Ahmedabad – During the first world war there was great inflation. Mill workers demanded for rise in salary. But the mill owners rejected this demand. As per Gandhi’s advice, the workers went on hunger strike. Finally, the mill owners had to back off and the salary of workers was increased.
Answer c: Champaran Satyagraha – In Bihar, the farmers of Champaran region were forced to cultivate indigo. The cultivators suffered economically since they received fixed amount from the planters. Gandhiji went to Champaran in 1917. He organised the farmers in Champaran and launched agitation by following the way of Satyagraha. Gandhiji’s first war of independence in India became successful and the farmers were given justice.