Linear equationsÂ are those equations that are of the first order. These equations are defined for lines in the coordinate system.Â
Linear equations are also first-degree equations as it has the highest exponent of variables as 1.Â Some of the examples of such equations are as follows:
- 2x – 3 = 0,Â
- 2y = 8
- Â m + 1 = 0,
- Â x/2 = 3
- Â x + y = 2
- 3x – y + z = 3
When the equation has a homogeneous variable (i.e. only one variable), then this type of equation is known as a Linear equation in one variable.Â In different words, a line equation is achieved by relating zero to a linear polynomial over any field, from which the coefficients are obtained.Â
The solutions of linear equations will generate values, which when substituted for the unknown values, make the equation true. In the case of one variable, there is only one solution, such as x+2=0. But in case of the two-variable linear equation, the solutions are calculated as the Cartesian coordinates of a point of the Euclidean plane.
Table of Contents:
- Definition
- Formula
- Equation of a Line
- Standard Form
- Slope Intercept Form
- Point Slope Form
- Intercept Form
- Two Point Form
- Solution of Linear Equations
- Problems and Solutions
Linear Equation Definition
What is a linear equation definition and example? An Equation having the maximum order of 1 is known as a Linear equation.
Below are some examples of linear equations in 1 variable, 2 variables and 3 variables:
Linear Equation in One variable | Linear Equation in Two variable | Linear Equation in Three variable |
3x+5=0
\(\frac{3}{2}x +7 = 0\)Â 98x = 49 |
y+7x=3
3a+2b = 5 6x+9y-12=0 |
x + y + z = 0
a – 3b = c 3x + 12 y = Â½ z |
Linear Equations Formula
There are different forms to write linear equations. Some of them are:
Linear Equation | General Form | Example |
Slope intercept form | y = mx + c | y + 2x = 3 |
Pointâ€“slope form | y – y_{1} = m(x – x_{1} ) | y – 3 = 6(x – 2) |
General Form | Ax + By + C = 0 | 2x + 3y – 6 = 0 |
Intercept form | x/x_{0} + y/y_{0} = 1 | x/2 + y/3 = 1 |
As a Function | f(x) instead of y
f(x) = x + C |
f(x) = x + 3 |
The Identity Function | f(x) = x | f(x) = 3x |
Constant Functions | f(x) = C | f(x) = 6 |
Where m = slope of a line; (x_{0}, y_{0}) intercept of x-axis and y-axis.
Also, read:
Equation of a Line
There are many forms through which a line is defined in an X-Y plane. Some of the common forms used here for solving linear equations are:
- General Form
- Slope Intercept Form
- Point Form
- Intercept Form
- Two-Point form
Standard Form of Linear Equation
Linear equations are a combination of constants and variables.Â
The standard form of a linear equation in one variable is represented as ax + b = 0 where, a â‰ 0 and x is the variable.
The standard form of a linear equation in two variables is represented as
ax + byÂ + c = 0, where, a â‰ 0, b â‰ 0 , x and y are the variables. |
The standard form of a linear equation in three variables is represented as
ax + by + cz + d = 0 where a â‰ 0, b â‰ 0, c â‰ 0, x, y, z are the variables. |
Slope Intercept Form
The most common form of linear equations is in slope-intercept form, which is represented as;
y = mx + c
where y and x are the point in x-y plane, m is the slope of the line (also called gradient) and c is the intercept (a constant value).
For example, y = 3x + 7:
slope, m = 3 and intercept = 7
Point Slope Form
In this form of linear equation, a straight line equation is formed by considering the points in x-y plane, such that:
y – y_{1} = m(x – x_{1} )
where (x_{1}, y_{1}) are the coordinates of the line.
We can also express it as:
Intercept Form
A line which is neither parallel to x-axis or y-axis nor it pass through the origin but intersects the axes in two different points, represents the intercept form. The intercept values x_{0} and y_{0}Â of these two points are nonzero and forms an equation of the line as:
Two-Point Form
If there are two points say,Â (x_{1}, y_{1}) and (x_{2}, y_{2}) and only one line passes through them, then the equation of the line is given by:
y – y_{1} = [(y_{2Â }– y_{1})/(x_{2Â }– x_{1})](x – x_{1} )
whereÂ (y_{2Â }– y_{1})/(x_{2Â }– x_{1}) is the slope of the line andÂ x_{1} â‰ x_{2}
How to Solve Linear Equations
By now you have got the idea of linear equations and its different forms. Now let us learn how to solve such linear or line equations in one variable, in two variables and in three variables with examples. Solving these equations with step by step procedure are given here.
Solution of Linear Equations in One Variable
Both sides of the equation are supposed to be balanced for solving a linear equation. Equality sign denotes that the expressions on either side of the â€˜equal toâ€™ sign are equal. Since the equation is balanced, for solving it certain mathematical operations are performed on both sides of the equation in a manner that it does not affect the balance of the equation. Here is the example related to the linear equation in one variable.
Example: SolveÂ (2x – 10)/2 = 3(x – 1)
Step 1: Clear the fraction
2x – 5 = 3(x – 1)
Step 2: Simplify Both sides equations
Â 2x – 5 = 3x – 3
2x = 3x + 2
2x – 3x = 2
Step 3: Isolate x
x = -2
Solution of Linear Equations in Two Variables
To solveÂ Linear Equations having 2 variables, there are different methods. Following are some of them:
- Method of substitution
- Cross multiplication method
- Method of elimination
- Determinant methods
We must choose a set of 2 equations to find the values of 2 variables. Such as ax + by + c = 0 and dx + ey + f = 0, also called a system of equations with two variables, where x and y are two variables and a, b, c, d, e, f are constants, and a, b, d and e are not zero. Else, the single equation has an infinite number of solutions.
Solution of Linear Equations in Three Variables
To solve Linear Equations having 3 variables, we need a set of 3 equations as given below to find the values of unknowns. Matrix method is one of the popular methods to solve system of linear equations with 3 variables.
a_{1}x + b_{1} y + c_{1}z + d_{1} = 0
a_{2}x + b_{2} y + c_{2} z + d_{2 }= 0 and
a_{3}x + b_{3} y + c_{3} z + d_{3 }= 0
Linear Equations Problems and Solutions
Example 1: Solve xÂ = 12(x +2)
Solution:Â
xÂ = 12(xÂ + 2)
x = 12x + 24
Subtract 24 from each side
x – 24 = 12x + 24 – 24
x – 24 = 12x
Simplify
11xÂ = -24
Isolate x, by dividing each side by 11
11x / 11 = -24/11
x = -24/11
Example 2: Solve x – y = 12 and 2x + y = 22
Solution:Â
Name the equations
x – y = 12Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ———- (1)
2x + y = 22 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ———- (2)
Isolate Equation (1) for x,
x = y + 12
Substitute y + 12 for x in equation (2)
2(y+12) + y = 22
3y + 24 = 22
3y = -2
or y = -2/3
Substitute the value of y in x = y + 12
x = y + 12
x = -2/3 + 12
x = 34/3
Answer: x = 34/3 and y = -2/3