Differences between Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells

The cell is the basic functional and structural unit of life. It plays a vital role in all biological activities and includes membrane-bound organelles, which are involved in various specialized individual functions to keep the cell alive and active.

The cell was first observed and discovered by English natural philosopher – Robert Hooke in the year 1665. The word cell is originated from Latin, which means “small room”.

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Based on the presence of the nucleus and other membrane-bound cellular organelles, the cell is further classified into prokaryotic, eukaryotic, plant and animal cells.

Also Refer: Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Bacterial Cell

Bacteria are unicellular, living organisms which have been grouped into the prokaryotic cell, as these organisms lack a few membrane-bound organelles and the nucleus, which is considered to be one of the most important cell organelles.

According to the evolution theory, bacteria were the very first organisms to evolve on earth and therefore, this group of living organisms is considered as one of the oldest forms of life on earth.

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Plant Cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that vary in several fundamental factors from an animal cell. Similar to the animal cell, the plant cell comprises the nucleus and other membrane-bound cellular organelles.

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Animals Cell

Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus. They are different from plant cells in several fundamental factors. These cells lack a cell wall, plastids and other cellular organelles.

Explore more: Facts about Animal cell

This was a brief introduction about the plant, animal and bacterial cells. Apart from this, there are many other facts which prove their differences.

Some key differences between the plant, animal and bacterial cells are listed below in a tabular column.

Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells: Comparisons

 

Plant Cell Animals Cell Bacterial Cell
Type of Cell
Eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells
Size of the cell
10 to 100 µm 10 to 100 µm 0.2 to 2 µm
The shape of the cell
Rectangular shaped Round or Oval shaped Are of different shapes- cocci, bacillus, vibrio, spirilla.
Cell Wall
Present Absent Present
Nucleus
Present Present Absent
Plasmids
Absent Absent Present
Plastids
Present Absent Absent
Mitochondria
Present Present Absent
Ribosomes
Larger 80s Ribosomes Larger 80s Ribosomes Smaller 70s Ribosomes
Centrioles
Absent Present Absent
Vacuoles
Larger vacuoles Smaller vacuoles Larger vacuoles
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Present Present Absent
Golgi Apparatus
Present Present Absent
Lysosomes
Present but are few in numbers Present Absent
Cilia and Filaments
Absent Present Present
Mode of Nutrition
Autotrophs Heterotrophs Both heterotrophs and autotrophs
Mode of Reproduction
Both sexual and asexual mode of reproduction. Sexual reproduction in higher animals and asexual in lower animals. Both sexual and asexual mode of reproduction.
Mode of Respiration
Aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration. Both aerobic and anaerobic.

Also Refer- Difference between the plant cell and animal cell

There are many more differences between plant, animal and bacterial cells. Stay tuned with BYJU’S Biology for more differences and other Biology related topics.

 

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