The cell is the basic functional and structural unit of life. It plays a vital role in all biological activities and includes membrane-bound organelles, which are involved in various specialized individual functions to keep the cell alive and active.
The cell was first observed and discovered by English natural philosopher – Robert Hooke in the year 1665. The word cell is originated from Latin, which means “small room”.
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Based on the presence of the nucleus and other membrane-bound cellular organelles, the cell is further classified into prokaryotic, eukaryotic, plant and animal cells.
Bacteria are unicellular, living organisms which have been grouped into the prokaryotic cell, as these organisms lack a few membrane-bound organelles and the nucleus, which is considered to be one of the most important cell organelles.
According to the evolution theory, bacteria were the very first organisms to evolve on earth and therefore, this group of living organisms is considered as one of the oldest forms of life on earth.
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Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that vary in several fundamental factors from an animal cell. Similar to the animal cell, the plant cell comprises the nucleus and other membrane-bound cellular organelles.
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Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus. They are different from plant cells in several fundamental factors. These cells lack a cell wall, plastids and other cellular organelles.
This was a brief introduction about the plant, animal and bacterial cells. Apart from this, there are many other facts which prove their differences.
Some key differences between the plant, animal and bacterial cells are listed below in a tabular column.
Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells: Comparisons
|Plant Cell||Animals Cell||Bacterial Cell|
|Type of Cell|
|Eukaryotic cells||Eukaryotic cells||Prokaryotic cells|
|Size of the cell|
|10 to 100 µm||10 to 100 µm||0.2 to 2 µm|
|The shape of the cell|
|Rectangular shaped||Round or Oval shaped||Are of different shapes- cocci, bacillus, vibrio, spirilla.|
|Larger 80s Ribosomes||Larger 80s Ribosomes||Smaller 70s Ribosomes|
|Larger vacuoles||Smaller vacuoles||Larger vacuoles|
|Endocytosis and Exocytosis|
|Present but are few in numbers||Present||Absent|
|Cilia and Filaments|
|Mode of Nutrition|
|Autotrophs||Heterotrophs||Both heterotrophs and autotrophs|
|Mode of Reproduction|
|Both sexual and asexual mode of reproduction.||Sexual reproduction in higher animals and asexual in lower animals.||Both sexual and asexual mode of reproduction.|
|Mode of Respiration|
|Aerobic respiration.||Aerobic respiration.||Both aerobic and anaerobic.|
There are many more differences between plant, animal and bacterial cells. Stay tuned with BYJU’S Biology for more differences and other Biology related topics.