What Are Receptors?
Receptors are defined as specialized structures found in the cell membrane. They are mainly composed of proteins, which bind to ligands and cause responses to the immune system. These receptors are found in various immune cells, including the B cells, T cells, stem cells and monocytes. Apart from the immune cells, receptors are present in other parts of the human body. The sense organs, including the eyes, ear, nose, tongue and skin are examples of receptors.
Explore more: Immune system
Functions Of Receptors
Receptors, the protein molecules in the target cell or on its surface are involved in various functions including:
- It regulates cell binding
- It helps in signal transduction
- It controls the membrane channels
- It is also involved in immune responses and immunotherapy
- It induces cell metabolisms, including cell growth, cell division and cell death
Read more: Metabolisms and Its Process
Let’s learn more about the types of receptors
Types Of Receptors
Based on their location, receptors are broadly classified into two types:
- Internal receptors
- Cell-surface receptors
Internal receptors include:
Growth Factor Receptors
The growth factor receptors play an important role in the regulation of cell development, division and differentiation. The receptors include:
- Neurotrophin receptor
- FGF receptor – Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor
- EGF receptor – Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
- IGF receptor – Insulin-like Growth Factor receptor
- PDGF receptor – Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor
- VEGF receptor – Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor
The cytokine receptors are involved in permitting cells to communicate with the extracellular environment by responding to signals generated by other parts of the organism. It is also involved in gene expression, the release of mediators, changes in the cell cycle, etc.
Refer more: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell-surface receptors include:
B Cell Receptors
These cells are also called the B cells or B lymphocytes. They are developed in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood and lymph. The main functions of a B cell are to produce antibodies against the foreign molecules or pathogens that enter the body. These cells play a vital role in adaptive immunity and the initiation of allergic responses.
T Cell Receptors
The T cell is the type of lymphocyte, which is developed in the thymus gland. They are responsible for removing pathogens from the body.
This is a type of immune cell that comprises granules and is involved in releasing enzymes during allergies, infections and asthma. There are three different types of granulocyte receptors – The cells of white blood cells -Basophils, Eosinophils and Neutrophils.
Read more: Types of White Blood Cells
This article concludes an introduction to receptors and their types. To know more about receptors, other related topics and important questions, keep visiting our website at BYJU’S Biology.