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1. A great demand for the raw materials was created by
(a) Industrial Revolution
(b) IT Revolution
(c) French Revolution
(d) Agrarian Revolution
2. The famous American merchant ship was sunk by Germany:
3. In 1945 at the end of the Second World War Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by:
4. Vallalar’ s devotional songs are compiled in a volume called:
(d) Thiru Arutpa
5. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s five principles of peace are named as:
(b) New Deal
6. Election Commission of India is situated at:
(d) New Delhi
7. World Consumer day is celebrated on:
(a) March 15
(b) March 16
(c) March 14
(d) March 11
8. The source of River Ganga is:
9. The “Golden fibre crop” is:
10. Manchester of India is:
11. Cost-efficient and the most popular mode of transport in our country is:
(a) Air Transport
(b) Road Transport
(c) Water Transport
(d) Rail Transport
12. India’s per capita Income is:
(a) 220 dollars
(b) 950 dollars
(c) 2930 dollars
(d) 600 dollars
13. Planning Commission of India was set up in the year:
14. Bhoodan Movement was started by
(a) Jayaprakash Narayan
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Acharya Vinobabhave
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
15. Match the following:
|Veto||Dr. S. Dharmambal|
|Rani Lakshmibai||Uttar Pradesh|
|Veera Tamilannai||Central India|
|Rani Lakshmibai||Central India|
|Chauri Chama||Uttar Pradesh|
|Veera Tamilannai||Dr. S. Dharmambal|
|Lava plateau||Marshy Land|
|Northern Railways||Electro Magnetic Radiation|
|Northern Railways||New Delhi|
|Sensor||Electro Magnetic Radiation|
16. What is Colonialism?
Answer: The definition of colonialism is the act of one nation controlling another for economic gain. An example of colonialism was England’s control over India.
17. Why did America enter into the First World War?
Answer: The United States of America joined World War I because Germany continued to wage unrestricted submarine warfare which had resulted in the sinking of ships of America. So the United States declared entry into the World War First in defence of liberty and established itself as the leader of the free world.
18. What is known as the Beer Hall Revolution?
Answer: Hitler began his political career as an agitator. In 1923, he made an attempt to capture power. It was known as the Beer Hall Revolution.
19. What was the immediate cause of the Second World War?
Answer: In 1939, Hitler demanded the right to construct a military road connecting East Prussia and Germany through Polish Corridor from Poland. He also demanded the surrender of Danzig. When Poland refused, Hitler made a lightning attack on Poland known as Blitzkrieg on 1st September 1939. This immediate cause resulted in the Second World war.
20. State the concept of “Agenda – 21” by UNO.
Answer: Agenda 21 was adopted by the Rio convention at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit 1992. It was aimed at achieving sustainable development at the global level and also to combat poverty, diseases, damage to environment through global cooperation, mutual needs, common interests and shared responsibilities.
21. Name the important leaders and the centres of the Sepoy’s Mutiny?
Answer: The important leaders and the centres of the Sepoy’s Mutiny are as follows:
|Delhi||Bahadur Shah – II|
|Central India||Rani Lakshmi Bai|
|Lucknow||Begum Hazarat Mahal|
|Kanpur||Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope|
|Bihar||Kunwar singh, Amar Singh|
22. What is Shuddhi Movement?
Answer: Shuddhi Movement was started by Arya Samaj in earlier part of 20th century to bring back the people who transformed their religion to Islam and Christianity from Hinduism. The literal meaning of Shuddhi is purification but Arya Samajis didn’t aim at literal meaning rather they meant reconversion by the term.
23. Write short notes on Rowlatt Act?
Answer: The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government to increase their grip on power over the common folk. This law was passed in March 1919 by the Imperial Legislative Council which gave them the power to arrest any person without any trial. To abolish this act, Gandhi and the other leaders called for a Hartal (suspension of work) to show Indians’ objection with this rule.
24. Why is world peace an essential one?
Answer: World peace is an essential one because if we see the opposite side of it which is war or destruction it means it will destroy everyone. Economic development of the nations can be achieved only through world peace. And if the peace is there in between worlds then it will lead to a good life as peace means progress and happiness. So, world peace is an essential one.
25. What are national parties?
Answer: A party that secures at least 6% of total votes in Lok sabha or Assembly elections in 4 states and also wins at least four seats in Lok sabha is called a national party. A national party is a party that shows its presence in the majority of states. Eg: Congress, BJP.
26. Write any two points on the importance of the Himalayas?
Answer: Two points on the importance of the Himalayas are:
- Himalayas give rise to the most important rivers in India like Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra because of which most of the states in North India get water for the whole year.
- It blocks the cold winds that blow towards India and thus helps to keep our country warm.
27. Name the factors determining the climate of India?
Answer: The factors determining the climate of India are:
- Distance from the sea
- Position of mountains
28. What do you understand by the term natural vegetation?
Answer: Natural vegetation means the plants that haven’t been grown by the humans and produced naturally. It is a result of climate, soil and biotic influences. They have been left undisturbed for a period of time by humans.
29. What are the agricultural seasons in India?
Answer: The agricultural seasons in India are:
30. Name any five software centres?
Answer: The five software centres are:
31. What is meant by e-waste?
Answer: E-Waste is the electronic waste or unused electronic materials or obsolete materials discarded by users. E-Waste results from all stuff like mobile phones, electronic or electric toys, machines, computers or their parts, printed circuit boards, chips, electronic components, calculators , smart devices, TV screens, video games, MP3 or MP4 players, disks, CD Roms, DVDs, flash pen drives, intelligent devices embedded in household appliances.
32. What is trade? What are the types of trade?
Answer: Trade is a process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services. The types of trades are Internal Trade and External Trade.
33. Mention the basic components of Remote Sensing?
Answer: The basic components of Remote Sensing are:
- Energy source
- Transmission path
34. Give examples for the tertiary sector?
Answer: The examples for the tertiary sector are trade, hotel industry, transport, storage , communication, finance, insurance, real estate and social services.
35. What is a mixed economy?
Answer: When all the economic activities will be owned by both the public and private sector then it is called a Mixed Economy.
Distinguish between any four of the following:
36. GMT and IST
Answer: The difference between GMT and IST are:
|Greenwich Mean Time||Indian Standard Time|
|The Greenwich Mean Time was established by the Royal Observatory in 1675 with the purpose of assisting navigators at sea.||The Indian Standard Time was established as the official time zone of India upon its independence on August 15th, 1947.|
|The term Greenwich Mean Time is used commonly in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations such as Australia, New Zealand and many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.||Indian Standard Time is used observed in India and Sri Lanka but it takes references from the UTC (Universal Time Coordinate). The UTC has been developed as a successor to the Greenwich Mean Time.|
37. Loo and Norwesters.
Answer: The difference between Loo and Norwesters are:
|These are strong hot winds which blow during the day time||These are local thunder storms.|
|They blow over the north western part of India||They blow over north eastern part of India|
38. Renewable resources and Nonrenewable resources.
Answer: The difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources are:
|Renewable Resources||Nonrenewable Resources|
|This type of resource can be used over and over throughout its life.||This type of resource should be used limitedly.|
|They are the energy resources which cannot be exhausted as they are present in unlimited quantity.||They are the energy resources which can be exhausted one day as they are present in a limited quantity only.|
39. Subsistence Agriculture and Commercial Agriculture.
Answer: The difference between Subsistence Agriculture and Commercial Agriculture are:
|Subsistence Agriculture||Commercial Agriculture|
|The type of farming done to meet family needs is called subsistence farming.||If farming is done for the purpose of business or profit, it is called commercial farming.|
|The land area used for subsistence farming is considerably small.||Commercial farming requires large areas of land.|
40. Iron and Steel Industries and Software Industry
Answer: The difference between Iron and Steel Industries and Software Industry are:
|Iron and Steel Industries||Software Industry|
|Iron and steel industries are mostly located in the Chotanagpur Plateau region.||The department of electronics has established an “Electronic park” in different parts of our country.|
|There are 11 integrated steel plants, and 150 mini steel plants rolling and rerolling mills in India.||At present there are more than 500 software firms in India.|
41. Air Pollution and Noise Pollution
Answer: The difference between Air Pollution and Noise Pollution are:
|Air Pollution||Noise Pollution|
|Air pollution refers to the release of harmful contaminants (chemicals, toxic gases, particulates, biological molecules, etc.) into the earth’s atmosphere.||Noise pollution refers to the excessive amount of noise in the surrounding that disrupts the natural balance. Usually, it is man-made, though certain natural calamities like volcanoes can contribute to noise pollution.|
|Volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radioactivity are the natural causes of air pollution.||The unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health.|
42. Exports and Imports
Answer: The difference between exports and imports are:
|Exports are explained as the goods and services manufactured in one country and acquired by citizens of another country.||The import trade is referred to goods and services purchased into one nation from another.|
|India exports nearly 7500 goods to 190 countries.||India imports nearly 6000 goods from 140 countries.|
43. Roadways and Railways
Answer: The difference between roadways and railways are:
|Roadways are easy to construct and maintain.||Railways are not easy to construct and maintain|
|Construction of roads is less expensive.||Construction of railways is expensive.|
44. Ambition of Germany
(a) Who was the ruler of Germany during the First World War?
(b) What did he believe?
(c) What could not be tolerated by him?
(d) Where did he station a fleet?
Answer a: Kaiser William II was the ruler of Germany during the First World War.
Answer b: He believed that his country alone was competent to rule the whole world.
Answer c: He could not tolerate the British saying that the sun never sets in the British Empire.
Answer d: Heligoland.
45. Revolt at Central India
(a) Who led the revolt in Central India?
(b) Name the place captured by Rani Lakshmi Bai.
(c) What was her end?
(d) What happened to Tantia Tope?
Answer a: Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and Tantia Tope who came from Kanpur led the revolt in Central India.
Answer b: Gwalior
Answer c: She was killed in the battle in June 1858.
Answer d: Tantia tope escaped but was captured and put to death.
46. Arya Samaj:
(a) Who was the founder of Arya Samaj?
(b) What was the motto of Arya Samaj?
(c) How was the founder of this movement called?
(d) Who spread the principles of Arya Samaj?
Answer a: Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi (Mul sankar) was the founder of Arya Samaj.
Answer b: “Go back to Vedas‟
Answer c: Martin Luther of Hinduism
Answer d: Lala lajpat Rai, Lala Hansraj and Pandit Guru Dutt.
47. Indian National Congress
(a) When was the Indian National Congress established?
(b) Where was the first session of the Indian National Congress held?
(c) Who was the chairperson of the first session of the Indian National Congress?
(d) How many delegates attended the first session?
Answer a: The Indian national congress was founded in 1885.
Answer b: The first session of the Congress was held at Bombay.
Answer c: W. C. Bannerjee
Answer d: 72 delegates
48. (a) Write a paragraph about Relief, Recovery and Reforms introduced by Franklin D Roosevelt.
(b) Write any five major achievements of the UNO?
(c) Explain the importance of Three Round Table Conferences?
Answer a: President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced the Relief, Recovery, and Reform programs, known as the ‘Three R’s’, at the time of the Great Depression addressing difficulties of mass unemployment and economic crisis. His either, immediate, temporary, or permanent actions and reforms were collectively known as FDR’s New Deal. Many Relief, Recovery, and Reform programs were initiated by a series of laws passed between 1933 and 1938. The laws were focused on relief programs, regulating the banks and the stock market, providing debt relief, managing farms, initiating industrial recovery, and introducing public works construction projects.
Answer b: The five major achievements of the UNO are as follows:
- UNO has rendered a great service in establishing Peace and Security by solving various problems, generally political disputes by Security Council, Legal disputes by the International Court of Justice and others by special agencies.
- It settled disputes between Israel and Palestine, Iran and Iraq and withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
- It has signed many Nuclear Test Ban treaties like NTBT in 1963 and CTBT in 1996.
- The UN conducted the conference of environment and development at Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
- The UNO played a vital role in the Suez Canal crisis of 1956. It made France, Britain, and Israel withdraw troops from Egypt. The UNO also settled the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
Answer c: The Round Table Conferences were a series of three conferences conducted by the Labour Party-led British government to deliberate upon and bring about constitutional reforms in British India during 1930-32.
First Round Table Conference:
- The First Round Table Conference was held between November 1930 and January 1931 in London.
- The Indian National Congress decided not to participate in the conference. Many of the INC leaders were imprisoned due to their involvement in the civil disobedience movement.
- Although many principles on reforms were agreed upon, not much was implemented and the Congress Party carried on its civil disobedience. The Conference was regarded as a failure.
- The British government understood the importance and the need for the Congress Party to make any decision on India’s political future.
Second Round Table Conference:
- The Second Round Table Conference was held in London from 7 September 1931 to 1 December 1931 with the participation of Gandhi and the Indian National Congress.
- In this conference, Gandhi and Ambedkar differed on the issue of separate electorates for the untouchables. Gandhi was against treating untouchables as separate from the Hindu community. This issue was resolved through the Poona Pact 1932.
- The Second Round Table Conference was deemed a failure because of the many disagreements among the participants. While the INC claimed to speak for the whole of the country, other participants and leaders of other parties contested this claim.
Third Round Table Conference:
- The third Round Table Conference took place between 17 November 1932 and 24 December 1932.
- Not much was achieved in this conference also. The recommendations of this conference were published in a White Paper in 1933 and later discussed in the British Parliament. The recommendations were analysed and the Government of India Act of 1935 was passed on its basis.
49. (a) Write about Pancha Sheel and the policy of Non-Alignment?
(b) Write a note on National Integration?
(c) Explain the rights of consumers?
Answer a: Panchsheel
Indian Policy makers understood the linkage between peace and development and survival of mankind. In view of the destruction caused by two world wars, they realized that for the progress of a nation a durable world peace was needed. Without global peace, social and economic development is likely to be pushed to the background. Thus, the founder of India’s foreign policy, Nehru gave utmost importance to world peace in his policy planning. For him, India desired peaceful and friendly relations with all countries, particularly the big powers and the neighboring nations. While signing a peace agreement with China; he advocated adherence to five guiding principles known as Panchsheel. Panchsheel was signed on 28 April, 1954 and since then it has become a guiding principle of India’ bilateral relations with countries also. Panchsheel includes the following five principles of foreign policy:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Non-aggression against each other.
- Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefit.
- Peaceful co-existence.
These principles of Panchsheel were later incorporated in the Bandung Declaration, signed in the Afro-Asian Conference held in 1955 in Indonesia. They are the core principles of Non-alignment and still guide the conduct of India’s foreign policy.
Non – Alignment
The NAM is an international forum of 120 developing countries that believe in the ideal of non-alignment with the major power blocs. It was established in 1961 in Belgrade, former Yugoslavia under the leadership of the then Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser and the President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito.
In the aftermath of the Second World War and the decolonisation process, many countries in the developing world in Asia and Africa felt the need for a strong movement towards securing peace and prosperity, and establishing security for all countries. This was when the world was divided into two power blocs, that of the USA and the Soviet Union, especially after the signing of the NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Most of these countries felt the need for mutual cooperation and coordination with respect to not formally aligning with or against any of the power blocs. The collapse of colonialism and the cold war led to the need for improved coordination among the Global South. It is interesting to note that the term ‘third world’ arose during the cold war era to denote countries that were not aligned to either of the two power blocs.
Answer b: In spite of diversity in physical features, its influence on person‟s living, their varied habits, religious faiths, language, food and dress habits make the people look different but the heritage of India binds them together; Humanism, spiritual urge, brotherhood, friendship, love for all and religious tolerance make the Indians live in unity and harmony. The feeling and thought that all are Indians and brothers and sisters help towards the growth of National Integration along with National symbols, National flag and National anthem. United we live, divided we fall is the spirit with which the Indians live and safeguard National Integration. This unity of India which we have achieved is basically the result of cultural heritage which has developed through the ages right from the days of the Indus culture.
Answer c: The rights of consumers are:
- Right to Safety- Before buying, a consumer can insist on the quality and guarantee of the goods. They should ideally purchase a certified product like ISI or AGMARK.
- Right to Choose- Consumer should have the right to choose from a variety of goods and in a competitive price
- Right to be informed- The buyers should be informed with all the necessary details of the product, make her/him act wise, and change the buying decision.
- Right to Consumer Education- Consumer should be aware of his/her rights and avoid exploitation. Ignorance can cost them more.
- Right to be heard- This means the consumer will get due attention to express their grievances at a suitable forum.
- Right to seek compensation- The defines that the consumer has the right to seek redress against unfair and cruel practices or exploitation of the consumer.
50 (a) ‘Unity in Diversity’ – Explain?
(b) Describe the factors encouraging the cotton textile industry in Mumbai?
(c) What do you understand from the term Recovery State of Disaster Risk reduction?
Answer a: India is a country of diverse social and cultural heritage. We Indians belong to different caste, community, religion and speak different languages. But Indians are united under the single name of BHARAT. There is diversity not only in regard to racial compositions, religious and linguistic distinctions but also in patterns of living, life styles, occupational pursuits, inheritance and succession of law and practices and rites related to birth, marriage, death etc. But Indians are bound to live unitedly and peacefully.
India is a secular country with total freedom of worship. People follow Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism with cultural diversities. In spite of its physical, religious and racial varieties, the “Indian culture‟ unites all people. Hence, India is known for her “ Unity in Diversity”.
Answer b: The factors encouraging the cotton textile industry in Mumbai are as follows:
- Mumbai is a region that has a humid atmosphere due to more area covered with the sea.
- This climate is good for the spinning process of cotton yarn.
- In Mumbai, there is a high quantity of water available for this industry as water is required for the condensing and washing process.
- The workforce required for this type of industry is easily available due to the high density of the population in Mumbai at even lower pay rates.
Answer c: The term Recovery State of Disaster Risk reduction are:
- Decision and action taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the conditions of the community and strengthening their capacity to cope with future disaster.
- It also ensures return to the normal situation and recovers equilibrium. The rehabilitation and reconstruction are the tasks in this stage and afford a valuable opportunity to develop and implement the measures of disaster risk reduction.
- The community activity, school disaster management committee and education on disaster management play a vital role in reducing the severity of natural and man-made hazards.
- The Government of Tamil Nadu has initiated the disaster risk management programme with the support and guidance given by the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP).
- The main objective of the programme is to enhance the capacity of the local community by providing training on first aid, search and rescue, early warnings etc.
51. (a) Explain the methods of calculating National Income.
(b) Explain Green Revolution.
(c) Explain the various Power Programs in Tamil Nadu.
Answer a: The methods of calculating National Income are:
- Product method
- Income method
- Expenditure method
1. Product Method – In this method the total value of all goods and services produced in a country is taken into account.
2. Income Method – In this method the income and payments received by all the people in the country are calculated
3. Expenditure Method – In this method we add up the expenditure of all people on consumer goods investment and saving.
Answer b: The Green Revolution is referred to as the process of increasing agricultural production by incorporating modern tools and techniques. The Green Revolution is associated with agricultural production. It is the period when agriculture of the country was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and techniques like the use of high yielding variety seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers. Until 1967, the government majorly concentrated on expanding the farming areas. But the rapidly increasing population than the food production called for a drastic and immediate action to increase yield which came in the form of the Green Revolution.
Features of Green Revolution
- Introduced High Yielding Variety seeds in Indian agriculture.
- The HYV seeds were highly effective in regions that had rich irrigation facilities and were more successful with the wheat crop. Therefore, the Green Revolution at first focused on states with better infrastructure such as Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
- During the second phase, the high yielding variety seeds were given to other states and crops other than wheat were also included in the plan.
- The most important requirement for the high yielding variety seeds is proper irrigation. Crops grown from HYV seeds need good amounts of water supply and farmers could not depend on monsoon. Hence, the Green Revolution has improved the irrigation systems around farms in India.
- Commercial crops and cash crops such as cotton, jute, oilseeds, etc were not a part of the plan. Green revolution in India mainly emphasised on food grains such as wheat and rice.
- To enhance farm productivity, the green revolution increased the availability and use of fertilizers, weedicides, and pesticides to reduce any damage or loss to the crops.
- It also helped in promoting commercial farming in the country with the introduction of machinery and technology like harvesters, drills, tractors, etc.
Answer c: The important power stations in Tamil nadu are listed below.
- Thermal Power – Thermal power stations are in Ennore, Tuticorin, Mettur, Basin Bridge and Neyveli.
- Hydel power – Hydel power stations are in Mettur, Kundah, Periyar Dam. Kothayar Dam, Pykara, Singara and Moyar.
- Atomic Energy – Atomic power stations are in Kalpakkam and Koodankulam.
- Wind Energy – It is a non conventional form of energy. The windmills are situated in Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Tuticorin, Ramanathapuram and Tirunelveli.
- Biomass Energy – This is another kind of Non-conventional energy. This kind of electricity is produced in Namakkal and Dharmapuri Districts. Biomass energy is a non-conventional form of energy made from agricultural waste.
52. Any five important events between the years 1920 – 1940.
Answer: Five important events between the years 1920 – 1940 are:
1920- Khilafat Movement, Non-Co-operation Movement
1922 – Chauri Chaura Incident, Suspension of Non-Co-operation Movement
1929 – Lahore Congress
1931 – Gandhi – Irwin Pact, Second Round Table Conference
1939 – Beginning of the Second World War
1940 – Demand for Pakistan, August offer
53 (a) Mark the following places in the given outline map of Asia:
(i) Saudi Arabia
(ii) Formosa (Taiwan)
(iii) Sakhalin Island
(iv) Pacific Ocean
Mark the following places in the given outline map of India
Answer a and b: Activity to be done by yourself.
54: Mark any ten places/regions on the given outline map of India.
(i) Thar desert
(iii) Western ghats
(iv) Rann of Kutch
(v) Wheat growing area
(vi) Gulf of Mannar
(vii) Mt. K2
(viii) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(x) Link Chennai and Delhi by rail route
(xii) Direction of South – West Monsoon wind
(xiii) Chotta Nagpur Plateau
(xiv) Mountain Soil
Answer: Activity to be done by yourself