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Monomial

A monomial is a polynomial, which has only one term. A monomial is an algebraic expression with a single term but can have multiple variables and a higher degree too. For example, 9x3yz is a single term, where 9 is the coefficient, x, y, z are the variables and 3 is the degree of monomial. Similar to polynomial, we can perform different operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on monomials. In this article, we are going to learn the monomial definition, different arithmetic operations performed on monomials and examples in detail.

What is a Monomial?

A monomial is a type of polynomial, having only a non-zero single term. Monomial consists of only a single term which makes it easy to do the operation of addition, subtraction and multiplication. It consists of either only one variable or one coefficient or product of a variable and a coefficient with exponents as whole numbers, which represent only one term. Whereas binomial and trinomial are also considered to be polynomial, which consists of two and three terms respectively. It cannot have a variable in the denominator.

Examples of Monomial

Let us consider some of the variables and examples:

  • p – One variable and degree is one.
  • 5p2 – with 5 as coefficient and degree as two.
  • p3q – with two variables (p and q) and degree as 4 (i.e., 3+1).
  • -6ty – t and y are two variables with coefficient -6.

Let us consider x3+3x2+4x+12 as a polynomial, where x3, 3x2, 4x and 12 are single terms and called monomials.

Parts of Monomial Expression

The different parts present in the monomial expression are:

  • Variable: The letters present in the monomial expression.
  • Coefficient: The number which is multiplied by the variable in the expression
  • Degree: The sum of the exponents present in the expression
  • Literal part: The alphabets which are present along with the exponent value in the expression

Example: 4xy2 is a monomial expression.

Here, 

the coefficient is 4

Variables are x and y

The degree of the monomial expression = 1+2 = 3

The literal part is xy2

Like, 4x is a monomial example, as it denotes a single term. In the same way, 23, 4x2, 5xy, etc., are all examples of monomials. But 23+x, 4x + y, 5xy-2 are not monomials, as they don’t fulfil the conditions.

Degree of Monomial

The degree of a monomial expression or the monomial degree can be found by adding the exponents of the variables in the expression. While calculating the monomial degree, it includes the exponent values of the variables and it also includes the implicit exponent of 1 for the variables, which usually does not appear in the expression.

For example, 2xy3. In this, the exponent value of 1 is not visible in the expression. Thus, the degree of the expression is 1+3 = 4. In case, the monomial expression is a constant value. The degree of the non-zero constant is given as 0. 

The degree of the monomial expression is also called the order of the monomial.

Factorization of Monomial

Like factoring a number, the monomial expression can also be factored. For example, the factorization of 15 is 3×5. The monomial expression can be expressed in the same way. Now, consider a monomial expression, 24a3. First, factor the coefficient of the variable, (i.e) 24. The number 24 is factored as 2×2×2×3. Similarly, a3 is factored as a×a×a.

Therefore, the factorization of the monomial 24a3 is 2×2×2×3×a×a×a.

Operations on Monomial

The arithmetic operations which are performed on the monomial expression are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

  • Addition of two monomials
  • Subtraction of two monomials
  • Multiplication of two monomials
  • Division of two monomials

Addition of Two Monomials

The addition of two monomials with the same literal part will result in a monomial expression

For example, the addition of 4ab + 6ab is 10 ab.

Subtraction of Two Monomials

The subtraction of two monomials with a similar literal part will result in a monomial expression

For example, the subtraction of 10xyz – 3xyz is 7xyz.

Multiplication of Two Monomials

The multiplication of two monomials will also result in monomial

For example, the product of 3x2y and 4z is 12x2yz

While multiplying two monomials with the same variables, then add the exponent value of the variables.

For example, the product of a3 and a4 is given as

(a3)(a4) = a3+4 = a7.

Division of Two Monomials

While dividing two monomials with the same variables, subtract the exponent value of the variables.

For example, the division of a9 by a3 is given as

(a9) / (a3) = a9-3 = a6.

Difference Between Monomial, Binomial and Trinomial

Monomial Binomial Trinomial
A monomial is an expression with a single term. A binomial is a polynomial or algebraic expression, which has a maximum of two non-zero terms.  A trinomial is a polynomial or algebraic expression, which has a maximum of three non-zero terms. 
Examples: 2x, 4y, 6z, 2x2, 7xyz, etc., are monomials Example: 2x2 + y, 10p + 7q2, a + b, 2x2y2 + 9, are all binomials Example: 2x2 + y + z, r + 10p + 7q2, a + b + c, 2x2y2 + 9 + z, are all trinomials

Now hopefully, we have got the basic difference between Monomial, Binomial and Trinomial. Let us solve some problems based on monomial.

Important Facts of Monomials

  • The multiplication of two monomial will also result in the monomial.
  • The sum or difference of two monomials might not result in a monomial.
  • An expression having a single term with a negative exponent cannot be considered as a monomial. (i.e) A monomial cannot have variables with negative exponents.

Related Articles

Solved Problems on Monomials

Example 1:

Identify which of the following is a Monomial.

  1. 3ab
  2. 4b+c
  3. 6x2+2y
  4. a+b+c2

Solution:

3ab is a Monomial

Whereas 4b+c and 6x2+2y are binomials and a+b+c2 is a trinomial.

And all of these equations are called a polynomial.

Example 2: 

Find the factorization of the monomial 10y3.

Solution:

Given monomial: 10y3.

First, factorize the coefficient of the variable, y. (i.e.)10.

Hence, 10 can be factorized as 2×5.

y3 can be factorized as y × y × y.

Therefore, the factorization of the monomial 10y3 is 2×5×y×y×y.

Monomial Practice Questions

1. Categorize the following expressions into monomials, binomials and trinomials.

(a) 2x+3y

(b) 4m3

(c) 2x2+3m-2

(d) -2y3

2. Factorize the monomial expression 64x2y.

Frequently Asked Questions on Monomials

Define monomial, binomial and trinomial

A monomial is an expression with only one term. Example. 3x.
A binomial is an expression with two terms. Example 2x+3y
A trinomial is an expression with three terms. Example x+2y+3z

What is meant by the degree of a monomial?

The degree of a monomial is defined as the sum of the exponents of the variables present in the monomial term.

What are the different arithmetic operations performed on monomials?

The different arithmetic operations performed on monomials are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Can we get a monomial term while adding two monomials?

If two monomials with the same literal parts are added, the sum should be a monomial. But, if we add two monomials with different literal parts, the result should be a binomial.

How to identify the monomial expression?

The monomial expression should not have an addition or subtraction operator. A monomial can be a constant term or else, the variables with coefficients and exponents.

Learn about the different types of algebraic expressions with us and download BYJU’S – The Learning App for interactive videos.

Test your knowledge on Monomials

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