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Roman Numerals

Roman Numerals is a special kind of numerical notation that was earlier used by the Romans. The Roman numeral is an additive and subtractive system in which letters are used to denote certain base numbers and arbitrary numbers in the number system. An example of a roman numeral is XLVII which is equivalent to 47 in numeric form. Roman numerals are denoted using a different combination of symbols, that include the English alphabet. For example, 5 in roman numeral is denoted by V. It has wide applications in naming anything such as Class I, Class II, Class X, etc.

Let us learn roman numerals in detail in this article.

What are Roman Numerals?

Roman numerals is an ancient number system that is still used in many places. In roman numerals, alphabets are used to represent the fixed positive numbers. These roman numerals are I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X represent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively.

After 10, the roman numerals are followed by XI for 11, XII for 12, XII for 13, … till XX for 20. The most common roman numerals that are presently used to represent the basic numbers are given in the table below.

I V X L C D M
1 5 10 50 100 500 1000

Roman Numerals Chart (1 to 1000)

Below is the chart for roman numerals that shows the roman numerals from 1 to 1000 such as for 1, 2, 3, …, 10, 11, 20, 30, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. Using the chart, we can easily write roman numbers from 1 to 1000.

Roman Numerals Chart

Students can download the pdf of the roman numerals chart for free from the link given below.

Roman Numerals 1 to 100 

Following is the list of Roman numerals or Roman numbers from 1 to 100. There are certain rules to write the roman letters from 1 to 100, which are explained here.

Number Roman

Numeral

Number Roman

Numeral

Number Roman

Numeral

Number Roman

Numeral

Number Roman

Numeral

1 I 21 XXI 41 XLI 61 LXI 81 LXXXI
2 II 22 XXII 42 XLII 62 LXII 82 LXXXII
3 III 23 XXIII 43 XLIII 63 LXIII 83 LXXXIII
4 IV 24 XXIV 44 XLIV 64 LXIV 84 LXXXIV
5 V 25 XXV 45 XLV 65 LXV 85 LXXXV
6 VI 26 XXVI 46 XLVI 66 LXVI 86 LXXXVI
7 VII 27 XXVII 47 XLVII 67 LXVII 87 LXXXVII
8 VIII 28 XXVIII 48 XLVIII 68 LXVIII 88 LXXXVIII
9 IX 29 XXIX 49 XLIX 69 LXIX 89 LXXXIX
10 X 30 XXX 50 L 70 LXX 90 XC
11 XI 31 XXXI 51 LI 71 LXXI 91 XCI
12 XII 32 XXXII 52 LII 72 LXXII 92 XCII
13 XIII 33 XXXIII 53 LIII 73 LXXIII 93 XCIII
14 XIV 34 XXXIV 54 LIV 74 LXXIV 94 XCIV
15 XV 35 XXXV 55 LV 75 LXXV 95 XCV
16 XVI 36 XXXVI 56 LVI 76 LXXVI 96 XCVI
17 XVII 37 XXXVII 57 LVII 77 LXXVII 97 XCVII
18 XVIII 38 XXXVIII 58 LVIII 78 LXXVIII 98 XCVIII
19 XIX 39 XXXIX 59 LIX 79 LXXIX 99 XCIX
20 XX 40 XL 60 LX 80 LXXX 100 C

Students can download the pdf of roman numerals from 1 to 100 for free from the link given below.

Roman Numerals 100 to 1000

After practising the above list, you will be able to find the list of roman numerals from 100 to 1000 as well.

Number Roman Numerals  Evaluation
100 C 100
200 CC 100 + 100
300 CCC 100 + 100 + 100
400 CD 500 – 100
500 D 500
600 DC 500 + 100
700 DCC 500 + 100 + 100
800 DCCC 500 + 100 + 100 + 100
900 CM 1000 – 100
1000 M 1000

From the above table, we can see how the roman numerals have been calculated and expressed alphabetically.

Roman Letters

The roman letters are English alphabets but not all the alphabets are roman alphabets. There are 23 roman alphabets out of 26 English alphabets, in which J, U and W are not considered as roman alphabets. Hence, the roman alphabets are:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y and Z. These roman letters are also called roman symbols.
For example, the year 2019 is written as MMXIX.

Rules to Write Roman Numerals

There are certain rules to be followed if we have to represent a number in roman numerals form. Please check the rules listed below.

  • The value of the symbol is added to itself, as many times as it is repeated. (Eg. II – 2, XX – 20 and XXX – 30).
  • A symbol can be repeated only for three times, for example XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.
  • Symbols V, L, and D are never repeated.
  • When a symbol of smaller value appears after a symbol of greater value, its values will be added. For Example-  VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6.
  • When a symbol of a smaller value appears before a greater value symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example-  IX = X – I = 10 – 1 = 9.
  • The symbols V, L, and D are never subtracted, as they are not written before a greater value symbol.
  • The symbol I can be subtracted from V and X only and symbol X can be subtracted from symbols L, M and C only.

Converting Roman Numerals to Numbers

Rule 1: If one or more symbols are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.

  • VII = 7 (5 + 2 = 7)
  • LXXX = 80 (50 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 80)
  • MCCC = 1300 (1000+100 + 100 + 100 = 1300)

Rule 2: If a symbol is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

  • CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)
  • IX = 9 ( 10 – 1 = 9 )
  • XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

Rule 3: 1000 is replaced by a bar in the case of roman numerals

5000 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 1,000000
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{V}\end{array} \)
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{X}\end{array} \)
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{L}\end{array} \)
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{C}\end{array} \)
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{D}\end{array} \)
\(\begin{array}{l}\bar{M}\end{array} \)

Subtractive Rule of Roman Numerals

Write Instead of For the value of
IV IIII 4
IX VIIII 9
XL XXXX 40
XC LXXXX 90
CD CCCC 400
CM DCCCC 900

Video Lesson on Roman Numerals

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Solved Examples on Roman Numerals

Example 1:

Write 69 in roman numerals.

Solution:

69 = 60 + 9

= (50 + 10) + (10 – 1)

= LX + IX

= LXIX

Thus, 69 = LXIX.

Example 2:

Convert 1984 into the roman numeral.

Solution:

Break the number 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then perform each conversion

As, 1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984

  • 1000 = M
  • 900 = CM
  • 80 = LXXX
  • 4 = IV

1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984,

So, 1984 = MCMLXXXIV

Example 3: 

Convert 1774 to Roman Numerals.

Solution:

Break 1774 into 1000, 700, 70, 4 and then do each conversion

1000 = M

700 = DCC

70 = LXX

4 = IV

1000+700+70+4 = 1774,

Hence, 1774 = MDCCLXXIV

Example 4:

Compute the following roman numeral MXXII – LXX – LII.

Solution:

Given: MXXII – LXX – LII.

We know that MXXII = 1022, LXX = 70 and LII = 52.

Now, substituting these numbers in the Roman numeral letters, we get;

MXXII – LXX – LII = 1022 – 70 – 52.

MXXII – LXX – LII = 900.

Hence, the number 900 in the Roman numeral is CM.

Practice Questions on Roman Numerals

  1. What is 500 in roman numeral form?
  2. Convert 1009 into a roman numeral.
  3. Convert CXII into the number form.
  4. What is 11 in roman numerals?
  5. Write 6 in roman numeral
  6. Write 12 in roman numerals
  7. What is the number form of the Roman numeral CMXXIII?


Frequently Asked Questions on Roman Numerals

How do we write 100 in roman?

In roman numerals, 100 is represented by C.

Write roman numerals from 1 to 10.

The roman numerals from 1 to 10 are given by:
1 – I
2 – II
3 – III
4 – IV
5 – V
6 – VI
7 – VII
8 – VIII
9 – IX
10 – X

How do we write 200 in Roman?

200 in Roman is written as CC.

How do you write roman numbers?

Roman numbers are written by using seven different alphabets. The numbers and alphabets are:
I – 1
V – 5
X – 10
L – 50
C – 100
D – 500
M – 1000
Using these alphabets, we can write all the roman numbers.

What does the roman number XC equal to?

XC = 90

How do you evaluate 800 in roman numeral?

800 = 500 + 100 + 100 + 100
500 = D and 100 = C
Therefore,
800 = DCCC

What is the use of roman numerals?

Roman numerals are used for labelling the name or position of any object or a person.
For example, Sam came Ist in class.
Prince Charles III
Schools have Class 1st to Class Xth.

Test your Knowledge on Roman Numerals

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