Roman Numerals

Roman Numerals are a special kind of numerical notations that were earlier used by the Romans. It is an additive and subtractive system in which letters are used to denote certain base numbers and arbitrary numbers in the number system and denoted using a different combination of symbols.

Roman Numbers 1 to 100 Chart

Following is the list of Roman numbers from 1 to 100. There are certain rules to write the roman letters from 1 to 100, which are explained here.

Roman Numerals 1 to 10

Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Roman Numerals I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Roman Numerals 11 to 20

Numbers 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Roman Numerals XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX

Roman Numerals 21 to 30

Numbers 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Roman Numerals XXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX

Roman Numerals 31 to 40

Numbers 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Roman Numerals XXXI XXXII XXXIII XXXIV XXXV XXXVI XXXVII XXXVIII XXXIX XL

Roman Numerals 41 to 50

Numbers 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
Roman Numerals XLI XLII XLIII XLIV XLV XLVI XLVII XLVIII XLIX L

Roman Numerals  51 to 60

Numbers 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Roman Numerals LI LII LIII LIV LV LVI LVII LVIII LIX LX

Roman Numerals 61 to 70

Numbers 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
Roman Numerals LXI LXII LXIII LXIV LXV LXVI LXVII LXVIII LXIX LXX

Roman Numerals 71 to 80

Numbers 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
Roman Numerals LXXI LXXII LXXIII LXXIV LXXV LXXVI LXXVII LXXVIII LXXIX LXXX

Roman Numerals 81 to 90

Numbers 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
Roman Numerals LXXXI LXXXII LXXXIII LXXXIV LXXXV LXXXVI LXXXVII LXXXVIII LXXXIX XC

Roman Numerals 91 to 100

Numbers 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
Roman Numerals XCI XCII XCIII XCIV XCV XCVI XCVII XCVIII XCIX C

Roman Numbers 1 to 1000

After practising the above list, you will be able to find the list of roman numbers 1 to 1000 as well.

Number Roman Numeral  Evaluation
100 C 100
200 CC 100+100
300 CCC 100+100+100
400 CD 500-100
500 D 500
600 DC 500+100
700 DCC 500+100+100
800 DCCC 500+100+100+100
900 CM 1000-100
1000 M 1000

From the above table, we can see how the roman numbers have been calculated and expressed alphabetically.

Roman Letters

The roman letters are the English alphabets but not all the alphabets are the roman alphabets. There are 23 roman letters out of 26 English alphabets, in which J, U and W are not considered as roman. Hence, the roman letters are:
A,B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y and Z.
All these letters are used to represent the roman numbers. For example, the year 2019 is written as MMXIX.

Converting Roman Numerals to Numbers

We can easily convert any numbers into a roman form and conversely, any roman form into any number. Let us understand with the help of an example, Consider a number, 1984

Convert number into the roman form

Break the number 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then perform each conversion

As, 1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984

  • 1000 = M
  • 900 = CM
  • 80 = LXXX
  • 4 = IV

1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984,

So, 1984 = MCMLXXXIV

Rules for forming the Numbers

  • When a symbol appears after a greater symbol, it will be added. For Example-  VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6
  • When a symbol appears before a greater symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example-  IX = X – I = 10 – 1 = 9

Tips – Break the number into Thousands, Hundreds, Tens and Ones, and write down each in turn

Convert 1774 to Roman Numerals

Break 1774 into 1000, 700, 70, 4 and then do each conversion

1000 = M

700 = DCC

70 = LXX

4 = IV

1000+700+70+4 = 1774, so 1774 = MDCCLXXIV

Rules for Converting Numbers to Roman Numerals

The three primary rules for writing and reading Roman numerals:

1. A letter can be repeated only for three times, for example XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.

2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.

VII = 7 (5 + 2 = 7)

LXXX = 80 (50 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 80)

MCCC = 1000 (100 + 100 + 100 = 1300)

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

IX = 9 ( 10 – 1 = 9 )

XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

Example for Subtractive Rule 

Write Instead of For the value of
IV IIII 4
IX VIIII 9
XL XXXX 40
XC LXXXX 90
CD CCCC 400
M DCCCC 900

Roman Numerals List

Below are some basic Roman numerals as:

1 5 10 50 100 500 1000
I V X L C D M
5000 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 1,000000
\(\bar{V}\) \(\bar{X}\) \(\bar{L}\) \(\bar{C}\) \(\bar{D}\) \(\bar{M}\)

Convert Roman numerals to numbers easily with the help of  a simple roman numeral calculator  at BYJU’S.

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