Roman Numerals

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Roman Numerals are a special kind of numerical notations that are used earlier by the Romans. It is an additive and subtractive system in which letters are used to  denote certain base numbers and arbitrary numbers and denoted using different combination of symbols.

Following is the list of roman numerals from 1 to 100

Roman Numerals

Converting Roman numerals to numbers-

We can convert easily convert any numbers into a roman form. Consider a number, 1984, let us now convert this number into the roman form-

Break the number 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then perform each conversion

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  • 1000 = M
  • 900 = CM
  • 80 = LXXX
  • 4 = IV

1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984,

So, 1984 = MCMLXXXIV

Rules for forming the Numbers

  • When a symbol appears after a greater symbol, it will be added. For Example-  VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6
  • When a symbol appears before a greater symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example-  IX = X – I = 10 – 1 = 9

Example – Break the number into Thousands, Hundreds, Tens and Ones, and write down each in turn

Convert 1774 to Roman Numerals

Break 1774 into 1000, 700, 70, 4 and then do each conversion

1000 = M

700 = DCC

70 = LXX

4 = IV

1000+700+70+4 = 1774, sO 1774 = MDCCLXXIV

Rules of Roman Numbers

The three primary rules for writing and reading Roman numerals:

1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times.

2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.

VII = 7 (5 + 2 = 7)

LXXX = 80 (50 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 80)

MCCC = 1000 (100 + 100 + 100 = 1300)

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

IX = 9 ( 10 – 1 = 9 )

XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

1 5 10 50 100 500 1000
I V X L C D M
5000 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 1,000000
\(\bar{V}\) \(\bar{X}\) \(\bar{L}\) \(\bar{C}\) \(\bar{D}\) \(\bar{M}\)<

Subtractive Rule

Write Instead of For the value of
IV IIII 4
IX VIIII 9
XL XXXX 40
XC LXXXX 90
CD CCCC 400
M DCCCC 900

Convert roman numerals to numbers easily with the help of  a simple roman numeral calculator @Byju’s.


Practise This Question

Ravi has Rs. 5.50 and Navi has Rs. 5.75. Who is richer among Ravi and Navi?