Properties of Triangle

We will discuss the properties of triangle here along with its definitions, types and its significance in Maths. A triangle definition states it is a polygon that consists of three sides, three edges, three vertices and the sum of internal angles of a triangle equal to 1800. Depending upon the sides and angles of a triangle, we have the following types of triangles given below.

On the basis of Sides

On the basis of angles

Scalene Triangle

Acute angled Triangle

Isosceles Triangle

Right angle Triangle

Equilateral Triangle

Obtuse-angled Triangle

So before, discussing the properties of triangles, let us discuss these above-given types of triangles.

Scalene Triangle: All the sides and angles are unequal.

Isosceles Triangle: It has two equal sides and angles opposite to these equal sides are also equal.

Equilateral Triangle: All the sides are equal and all the three angles are of 600.

Acute Angled Triangle: A triangle having all its angles less than 900.

Right Angled Triangle: A triangle having one of the three angles is 900.

Obtuse Angled Triangle: A triangle having one of the three angles as more than 900.

Now that you have got the details of all the triangles, let us further discuss triangle properties.

A Triangle has the following properties:

  • The sum of all the angles of a triangle(of all types) is equal to 1800.
  • The sum of the length of the two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side.
  • In the same way, the difference between the two sides of a triangle is less than the length of the third side.
  • The side opposite the greater angle is the longest side of all the three sides of a triangle.
  • The exterior angle of a triangle is always equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. This property of a triangle is called an exterior angle property
  • Two triangles are said to be similar if their corresponding angles of both triangles are congruent and lengths of their sides are proportional.
  • Area of a triangle = ½ × Base × Height
  • Perimeter of a triangle = sum of all its three sides

Check the links given below to learn the properties of equilateral, isosceles and scalene triangles in detail.

Example Question Based on Triangle Properties

Example: If an equilateral triangle has lengths of sides as 5 cm and a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex to the base of the triangle. Then find its area and perimeter.

Solution: Given, side of the equilateral triangle, say ABC = 5 cm

If we draw a perpendicular from the vertex of an equilateral triangle, A to the base at point O, it divides the base into two equal sides.

Properties of Triangle

Such that, BO = OC = 2.5 cm

Now, the area of triangle = ½ × Base × Height

To find the height of the triangle, AOB, we have to use Pythagoras theorem.

That is, Hypotenuse2 = Base2 + Perpendicular2

Or Perpendicular = \(\sqrt{Hypotenuse^2-Base^2}\)

Therefore, OA = \(\sqrt{AB^2-OB^2}\)

Or OA = \(\sqrt{5^2-2.5^2}\)

OA = \(\sqrt{25-6.25} = \sqrt{18.75}\)

Area of triangle = ½ × OB × OA

= ½ × 2.5 × \(\sqrt{18.75}\) = ½ × 2.5 × 4.33

Area of triangle ABC = 5.4125 cm2

Perimeter of triangle ABC = sum of all its three sides

= 5+5+5 cm

= 15cm

Learn more about different interesting topics of geometry here at BYJU’S. Also, download the BYJU’S app to get a visual of such figures and understand the concepts in a more better and creative way.

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