The induced immunity in organisms by the exposure of antigens is known as active immunity. The active immunity is mediated by two distinct mechanisms known as Cell-mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity. These two immunity pathways show a considerable amount of differences in their targets, components and the method of killing pathogens.
Humoral immunity is mediated through antibodies. It shows a quick response against pathogens. It is the major defence mechanism against extracellular microbes trying to invade the host systems. The antibodies produced by the B-cells bind to the antigens and neutralize the microbes.
Cell-mediated immunity is facilitated by the T-helper and cytotoxic T-cells. Cytokines secreted by the T- helper cells activate phagocytic cells which phagocytosis the pathogens and kill them.
Difference Between Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity
The difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity is given below in a tabular column.
|Cell-mediated Immunity||Humoral Immunity|
|Cell-mediated response is mediated by antibodies.||Humoral response is mediated by antibodies.|
|Antibodies are not formed here.||Antibodies are formed here.|
|Receptors are used to detect antigens.||Antibodies are used to detect antigens.|
|It protects against intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens.||It protects against extracellular bacterial and viral pathogens.|
|T helper, T cytotoxic and natural killer cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity.||T-cells, B-cells and macrophages are involved in humoral immunity.|
|It mediates delayed hypersensitivity.||It mediates immediate hypersensitivity.|
|It can eliminate tumor cells.||It cannot eliminate tumour cells.|
|It participates in rejection of organ transplants.||It might be involved in early graft rejection.|
|CD4+ and CD8+ cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity.||Only TH cells are involved in humoral immunity.|
These were a few differences between humoral and cell-mediated immunity. To know more about the difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.