There are a number of living organisms in the world. The animal kingdom includes the largest variety of species ranging from simplest to most complex forms. It includes the following phyla:
- Phylum Porifera
- Phylum Coelenterata
- Phylum Platyhelminthes
- Phylum Nematoda
- Phylum Annelida
- Phylum Arthropoda
- Phylum Mollusca
- Phylum Echinodermata
- Phylum Protochordata
- Phylum Vertebrata
Q.1. In which phylum do the adults exhibit radial symmetry and larva exhibit bilateral symmetry?
Q.2. How are pneumatic bones and air sacs important in aves?
A.2. Pneumatic bones are hollow filled with air which helps them in flying. Air sacs are the air reservoirs. They also regulate body temperature and act as cooling devices.
Q.3. Match the following:
|Aves||Sucking and circular mouth without jaws|
Amphibia- Dual Habitat Mammals- Mammary Glands Chondrichthyes- Cartilaginous notochord Osteichthyes- Air bladder Cyclostomata- Sucking and circular mouth without jaws Aves- Pneumatic bones
Q.4. Differentiate between diploblastic and triploblastic animals.
|Diploblastic Animals||Triploblastic Animals|
|Diploblastic animals are those in which cells are arranged in two embryonic layers, internal endoderm, external ectoderm. For eg., coelenterates.||While triploblastic animals are those that have a mesoderm along with the ectoderm and endoderm. For eg., chordates|
Q.5. Provide a technical term for the following:
- Blood filled cavity in arthropods
- A stinging organ of jellyfish
- Free-floating form of Cnidaria
- Lateral appendages in aquatic annelids
Q.6. Give an example of:
- An oviparous mammal
- A limbless reptile
- Fish possessing poison sting
- Duck-billed Platypus
Q.7. Mention the role of the radula in Molluscs.
A.7. The radula helps in scraping and scratching the food and creates depressions in the rocks. Molluscs use rocks as their habitat.
Q.8. What do you understand by metagenesis? Give an example.
A.8. Metagenesis is the phenomenon in which one generation of plants and animals reproduces asexually followed by sexually reproducing generation. For eg., Coelenterates.
Q.9. What is bioluminescence? Give an example.
A.9. The production and emission of light by a living organism is known as bioluminescence. It is widely seen in marine animals, in some fungi, and a few terrestrial invertebrates. Jellyfish and fireflies exhibit this phenomenon.
Q.10. How do endoparasites survive inside the body of the host?
A.10. The endoparasites have the following features which help them to survive inside the body of the host:
- Anaerobic respiration.
- Exchange of gases through the body surface.
- They possess an additional organ for attachment.
- Well-developed reproductive organs.
- A thick body covering is present.
- They have no locomotory organs.
- Tapeworms do not have a digestive system and absorb the digested food of the host.
Q.11. Mention two similarities between Aves and Mammals.
A.11. Both Aves and Mammals are homeotherms, i.e., warm-blooded. They have a four-chambered heart.
Q.12. What is the function of feathers in birds?
A.12. Feathers play the following roles:
- The feathers help in maintaining body temperatures.
- They provide airfoil shape for wings to help in flight.
- They act as the secondary sex characters in both the sexes. The colour and markings help in attracting mates.
Q.13. Name the classes of vertebrates with two, three and four-chambered hearts.
A.13. Two-chambered hearts– Fish One atria and one ventricle are present. The oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixes together.
Three-chambered hearts- Amphibians Two auricles and one ventricle
Four-chambered hearts- Mammals Two auricles and two ventricles.
Q.14. Complete the following:
|Phylum/Class||Excretory Organ||Circulatory Organ||Respiratory Organ|
|Phylum/Class||Excretory Organ||Circulatory Organ||Respiratory Organ|
|Amphibia||Closed||Closed||Lungs and Skin|
Q.15. Differentiate between open and closed circulatory system.
|Open Circulatory System||Closed Circulatory System|
|Blood flows through open spaces called lacunae.||Blood flows through closed vessels.|
|Circulation takes a longer time.||Circulation takes a shorter time.|
|Haemocoel is present.||Haemocoel is absent.|
|The blood flows with slow velocity.||The blood flows with a higher velocity.|
|Internal organs are in direct contact with blood.||Internal organs are in direct contact with blood.|
|Blood flow cannot be regulated.||Blood flow can be regulated.|
|Supply and removal of materials are slow.||Supply and removal of materials are rapid.|
|Materials are exchanged between blood and lacunae.||Materials are exchanged between blood and tissues through sinuses.|
Q.16.What is the importance of pneumatic bones and air sacs in Aves?
A.16.Pneumatic bones, the hollow bones and air sacs in birds helps them in flying.
Q.17.Give examples for the animal having canal system and spicules
A.17.Scypha and Euspongilla and other members of Porifera have spicules and canal system in their body.
Q.18.Give examples of warm and cold-blooded animals?
A.18. All birds and mammals are examples of warm-blooded animals.
All amphibians -frogs, toads, and salamanders, aquatic animals, such as alligators, crocodiles, sharks, lizards, fish, snakes, turtles, tortoises, and some insects such as the dragonflies and bees are all examples of cold-blooded animals.
Q.19.What are triploblastic animals?
A.19.Animals with three germ layers- the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are called triploblastic animals. All multicellular animals including Molluscs, worms, arthropods, Echinodermata and vertebrates are examples of triploblastic animals.
Q.20.Differentiate between open and closed circulatory system?
A.20.The open circulatory system is found in all invertebrates. In this system of circulation, the blood flows freely into cavities, as there are no blood vessels to conduct the blood.
The closed circulatory system is found in all vertebrates and also in few invertebrates like earthworms. In this system of circulation, the presence of blood vessels helps in circulating blood throughout the body.
Q.21.What is the importance of feathers in birds?
A.21.Feathers are found in all birds (Aves). They are the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering of the bird’s body and are found on both wings and the tail.
In birds, feathers help in:
- Controlling flight.
- Serve as camouflage against their predators.
- In many bird species, the different patterns of feathers and attractive colours are part of the sexual dimorphism.
- Insulating birds from water and cold temperatures and also provide insulation to their eggs and young ones.
- In some species of birds like owl and woodpecker, feathers are used for balancing while walking on the ground, climbing the trees, and also helps in hearing and making different sounds like drumming, humming and whistling.
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