**Bar graphs** are the pictorial representation of data (generally grouped), in the form of vertical or horizontal rectangular bars, where the length of bars are proportional to the measure of data. They are also known as bar charts. Bar graphs are one of the means of data handling in statistics.

The collection, presentation, analysis, organization, and interpretation of observations of data are known as statistics. The statistical data can be represented by various methods such as tables, bar graphs, pie charts, histograms, frequency polygons, etc. In this article, let us discuss what is a bar chart, different types of bar graphs, uses, and solved examples.

**Table of Contents:**

## Bar Graph Definition

The pictorial representation of a grouped data, in the form of vertical or horizontal rectangular bars, where the lengths of the bars are equivalent to the measure of data, are known as bar graphs or bar charts.

The bars drawn are of uniform width, and the variable quantity is represented on one of the axes. Also, the measure of the variable is depicted on the other axes. The heights or the lengths of the bars denote the value of the variable, and these graphs are also used to compare certain quantities. The frequency distribution tables can be easily represented using bar charts which simplify the calculations and understanding of data.

## Types of Bar Charts

The bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. The primary feature of any bar graph is its length or height. If the length of the bar graph is more, then the values are greater of any given data.

Bar graphs normally show categorical and numeric variables arranged in class intervals. They consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars. The bars represent frequencies of distinctive values of a variable or commonly the distinct values themselves. The number of values on the x-axis of a bar graph or the y-axis of a column graph is called the scale.

The types of bar charts are as follows:

- Vertical bar chart
- Horizontal bar chart

Even though the graph can be plotted using horizontally or vertically, the most usual type of bar graph used is the vertical bar graph. The orientation of the x-axis and y-axis are changed depending on the type of vertical and horizontal bar chart. Apart from the vertical and horizontal bar graph, the two different types of bar charts are:

- Grouped Bar Graph
- Stacked Bar Graph

Now, let us discuss the four different types of bar graphs.

### Vertical Bar Graphs

When the grouped data are represented vertically in a graph or chart with the help of bars, where the bars denote the measure of data, such graphs are called vertical bar graphs. The data is represented along the y-axis of the graph, and the height of the bars shows the values.

### Horizontal Bar Graphs

When the grouped data are represented horizontally in a chart with the help of bars, then such graphs are called horizontal bar graphs, where the bars show the measure of data. The data is depicted here along the x-axis of the graph, and the length of the bars denote the values.

### Grouped Bar Graph

Grouped bar graph is also called the clustered bar graph, which is used to represent the discrete value for more than one object that shares the same category. In this type of bar chart, the total number of instances are combined into a single bar. In other words, a grouped bar graph is a type of bar graph in which different sets of data items are compared. Here, a single color is used to represent the specific series across the set. The grouped bar graph can be represented using both vertical and horizontal bar charts.

### Stacked Bar Graph

Stacked bar graph is also called the composite bar chart, which divides the aggregate into different parts. In this type of bar graph, each part can be represented using different colors, which helps to easily identify the different categories. The stacked bar chart requires specific labeling to show the different parts of the bar. In a stacked bar graph, each bar represents the whole and each segment represents the different parts of the whole.

## Uses of Bar Graphs

Bar graphs are used to match things between different groups or to trace changes over time. Yet, when trying to estimate change over time, bar graphs are most suitable when the changes are bigger.

Bar charts possess a discrete domain of divisions and are normally scaled so that all the data can fit on the graph. When there is no regular order of the divisions being matched, bars on the chart may be organized in any order. Bar charts organized from the highest to the lowest number are called Pareto charts.

## Bar Graph Examples

To understand the above types of bar graphs, consider the following examples:

**Example 1: In a firm of 400 employees, the percentage of monthly salary saved by each employee is given in the following table. Represent it through a bar graph.**

Savings (in percentage) | Number of Employees(Frequency) |

20 | 105 |

30 | 199 |

40 | 29 |

50 | 73 |

Total | 400 |

Solution: The given data can be represented as

This can also be represented using a horizontal bar graph as follows:

**Example 2: A cosmetic company manufactures 4 different shades of lipstick. The sale for 6 months is shown in the table. Represent it using bar charts.**

Month | Sales (in units) | |||

Shade 1 | Shade 2 | Shade 3 | Shade 4 | |

January | 4500 | 1600 | 4400 | 3245 |

February | 2870 | 5645 | 5675 | 6754 |

March | 3985 | 8900 | 9768 | 7786 |

April | 6855 | 8976 | 9008 | 8965 |

May | 3200 | 5678 | 5643 | 7865 |

June | 3456 | 4555 | 2233 | 6547 |

Solution: The graph given below depicts the following data

**Example 3: The variation of temperature in a region during a year is given as follows. Depict it through the graph (bar).**

Month |
Temperature |

January | -6°C |

February | -3.5°C |

March | -2.7°C |

April | 4°C |

May | 6°C |

June | 12°C |

July | 15°C |

August | 8°C |

September | 7.9°C |

October | 6.4°C |

November | 3.1°C |

December | -2.5°C< |

Solution: As the temperature in the given table has negative values, it is more convenient to represent such data through a horizontal bar graph.

## Practice Problem

**Question: ***A school conducted a survey to know the favourite sports of the students. The table below shows the results of this survey.*

Name of the Sport |
Total Number of Students |

Cricket | 45 |

Football | 53 |

Basketball | 99 |

Volleyball | 44 |

Chess | 66 |

Table Tennis | 22 |

Badminton | 37 |

From this data,

1. Draw a graph representing the sports and the total number of students.

2. Calculate the range of the graph.

3. Which sport is the most preferred one?

4. Which two sports are almost equally preferred?

5. List the sports in ascending order.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Bar Graph

### What is meant by a bar graph?

Bar graph (bar chart) is a graph that represents the categorical data using rectangular bars. The bar graph shows the comparison between discrete categories.

### What are the different types of bar graphs?

The different types of bar graphs are:

Vertical bar graph

Horizontal bar graph

Grouped bar graph

Stacked bar graph

### When is a bar graph used?

The bar graph is used to compare the items between different groups over time. Bar graphs are used to measure the changes over a period of time. When the changes are larger, a bar graph is the best option to represent the data.

### When to use a horizontal bar chart?

The horizontal bar graph is the best choice while graphing the nominal variables.

### When to use a vertical bar chart?

The vertical bar graph is the most commonly used bar chart, and it is best to use while graphing the ordinal variables.

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