Geometric Shapes & Figures

Geometric Shapes & Figures: You may have come across many different shapes in Maths, with different names. Triangle, circle, trapezium, square, rectangle, cube, heart, diamond, etc. are some list of shapes. Here in this article, you will learn about geometric shapes definition with examples. The things like photo frames, ice-cream cone, ball, block, bricks, etc. are the shapes which reflect examples of geometry in daily life. Shapes are nothing but simple geometric figures which have a specific boundary, interior and exterior surface area.

Geometric Shapes List

Some shapes are two-dimensional (2-D) where some are three-dimensional (3-D) figures. To draw any of these figures, one begins with a line or a line segment or a curve. Depending upon the number and arrangement of these lines we get different types of shapes and figures like a triangle, a figure where three line segments are connected, Pentagon (five line segments) and so on. But every figure is not a complete figure. Get the list of geometrical shapes which are commonly used in maths with their definition:

  1. Triangle: Triangle is a polygon, which is made of three sides and consists of three edges and three vertices and also, the sum of its internal angles equal to 180o.
  2. Circle: Locus of all points at a fixed distance from a reference central point is called a Circle.
  3. Square: Square is a quadrilateral where all the four sides and angles are equal and the angles are at 90°.
  4. Rectangle: A quadrilateral which has its opposite sides equal in length and interior angles are at a right angle.
  5. Parallelogram: A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides and opposite angles are equal in measures.
  6. Polygons: These are made up of line segments and no curves. They are enclosed structure based on different length of sides and different angles.

Types of Geometric Shapes: Open & Closed Figures

A point is a small dot which is the starting point of a line segment. By definition, a line segment is a part of a line in which a linear lane connecting two points within a line. Different numbers of line segments give us different figures and such figures may be either open figure or closed shapes or figures.

Geometric shapes

Closed Shapes

Geometric shapes such as a square, rectangle, circles and triangles are few basic 2D shapes. These figures are collectively called polygons. A polygon is any shape which is flat or plane on a surface of a paper. They have a finite closed boundary made up of a fixed number of line segments and are called sides of the polygon. Each side meets at a common point called corners (vertex).

Such bounded geometric shapes like polygons are called closed figures. A boundary of a closed figure is not only made of line segments but also by curves. Hence, a closed figure can be defined as any geometric shape which starts and ends at the same point to form a boundary by line segments or by curves.

Closed Geometric shapes

Open Shapes

Open figures are incomplete shapes. To sketch a closed figure one has to meet both the starting point and ending point. Open figures are also depicted by using line segments or by curves but at least of the lines will be discontinuous. An open figure’s starting and end points are different.

Open Geometric shapes

Example 

Question: Find the open figure from the following.

Geometric shapes Question
Solution: Correct answer is figure D. All other figures are closed figures where both the start and end points are the same.

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Practise This Question

Observe the pattern given below

 

 

Then, what is the general expression for this pattern?