A fraction is a number representing a part of a single whole object or a group of objects. It is defined by two numbers, one on top and the other at the bottom of a fraction bar, known as numerator and denominator respectively. Depending upon the similarity of the denominator, we categorize two or more fractions into like fractions and unlike fractions. They are also termed sometimes as a similar fraction and dissimilar fractions.
The meaning of like is same and unlike means different. Hence, both the type of fractions are directed to same denominator and different denominator respectively. Now here in this article, we will learn to perform the arithmetic operations on both the type of fractions along with how to convert unlike fraction into a like fraction with examples. Let us learn more here.
They are the group of two or more fractions that have exactly the same denominator. Or we can say that, the fractions which have same numbers at the bottom or in the numerator are called like fractions. For example, 1/7, 2/7, 5/7, 6/7 all like fractions, whose denominators equal to 7.
It is easy to perform arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction on liked fractions. We don’t have to neutralise the denominators while performing both the operations. Let us understand with the help of examples.
Addition and Subtraction of Like Fractions
When we add or subtract the like fractions, the denominator will remain same and only numerators are added or subtracted respectively. Below are the examples.
Example 1: Add 2/3 and 5/3
Solution: 2/3 + 5/3 = (2+5)/3 = 7/3
Example 2: Subtract 1/2 from 11/2.
Solution: 11/2 – 1/2 = (11-1)/2 = 10/2 = 5
Points to Remember
- 2/4, 4/8, 1/2, etc. are not like fractions, although when simplified, they all result in 1/2.
- 6/16 and 6/26 are not like fractions. The nominators are the same but denominators are not.
- 2, 3, 4 are like fractions since their denominators are considered as 1, which implies these fractions are 2/1, 3/1 and 4/1.
Fractions with different denominators are called, unlike fractions. Here the denominators of fractions have different values. For example, 2/3, 4/9, 6/67, 9/89 are unlike fractions.
Since the denominators here are different, therefore it is not easy to add or subtract such fractions. To perform arithmetic operations like addition and subtraction in case of unlike fractions, we have to covert the unlike fractions into like fractions first. Then we perform the required operation.
Addition and Subtraction of Unlike Fractions
When we add and subtract two unlike fractions, we have to make the denominator equal first and then perform the respective operation. There are twp methods by which we can make the denominator equal. They are:
- Cross-Multiplication Method
- LCM Method
In cross multiplication method, we cross multiply the numerator of first fraction by denominator of second fraction. Then multiply numerator of second fraction by denominator of first fraction. Now, multiply both the denominators and take it as a common denominator. Hence we can add or subtract the fractions now.
Example: Add 1/3 and 3/4
Solution: 1/3 + 3/4
By cross multiplication method, we get;[(1 x 4) + (3 x 3)]/3 x 4
(4 + 9)/12
In LCM method, we have to take the LCM of the denominators first of the given fractions. Now using this LCM, make all the fractions as like fractions. Then we can simplify the numerator.
Example: Add 3/8 and 5/12
Solution: 3/8 + 5/12
Now take the LCM of 8 and 12, we get;
LCM (8, 12) = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 24
Now multiply the given fractions to get the denominators equal to 24, such that;[(3 x 3)/(8 x 3)] + [(5 x 2) + (12 x 2)]
(9/24) + (10/24)
Conversion of Unlike to Like Fraction
Like fractions facilitate the comparison of fractions. So there is often a need to convert unlike fractions to them.
Let us convert 1, 4/5, 7/10 and 1/2 into like fractions. Steps for conversion:
- Find the LCM of the denominators. LCM of 1, 5, 10 and 2 is 10.
- Calculate their equivalent fractions with the same denominator, that is, the LCM.
1/1 = (1×10)/(1×10) = 10/10
4/5 = (4×2)/(5×2) = 8/10
7/10 = (7×1)/(10×1) = 7/10
1/2 = (1×5)/(2×5) = 5/10
1, 4/5, 7/10 and 1/2 which are unlike fractions can be represented as 10/10, 8/10, 7/10 and 5/10 which are like fractions.
It is to be noted that when the denominators become equal, the fractions can be compared. You would not be able to answer the largest among 1, 4/5, 7/10 and 1/2. But once they have been converted to 10/10, 8/10, 7/10 and 5/10, you can arrange them in the ascending order of 5/10, 7/10, 8/10 and 10/10 very conveniently.
Types of Fractions
There are majorly three types of fractions, they are:
- Proper Fraction
- Improper Fraction
- Mixed Fraction
Proper and Improper Fractions
Similar to like and unlike fractions, we have another type of fractions, which are known as proper and improper fractions.
- A proper fraction is a fraction that has a value less than 1. Or we can say, when the value of numerator is less than the denominator, then such fractions are called proper fractions. For example, 1/2, 1/3, 4/5, 6/7, 8/9, etc.
- An improper fraction is a fraction whose value is more than 1. When the value of numerator is greater than the value of denominator, then fraction is known as improper fractions. For example, 3/2, 5/4. 4/3. 8/3, etc.
When we combine a whole number and a fraction, to represent a mixed number, then it is called mixed fraction. For example:
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