Human, plant and animals health are very much important to maintain the superior environment. Microbial infections and diseases have caused major losses to these organisms which lead to the reduction of a healthy environment.
An antimicrobial therapy is used to destroy or to prevent the microorganism’s growth. Two types of antimicrobial therapies are available.
- Microbicidal therapy – It is used to kill the microorganisms.
- Microbiostatic therapy – It is used to prevent the microorganism growth.
Therefore an antibiotic plays an important role in maintaining the healthy environment.
Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs obtained from the microorganisms to treat, prevent and to destroy the infections caused by the harmful microorganism. Antibiotics are effective against bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections but not for viral infections.
Antibiotics are produced on a large scale by the fermentation process. This is a chemical process which is induced by the microorganisms in a large tank. A large tank contains the growth medium that provides the nutrition for the microorganism growth. Optimization of temperature, pH, oxygen and nutrient parameter in fermentation tank is more effective to produce antibiotics. After the completion of antibiotics production, they are extracted and purified through multiple physical processes. Finally, the purified antibiotics are converted into crystal form.
For example – Penicillin
Penicillin was first discovered by the scientist, Alexander Fleming in 1929 which is widely used to treat the different type of bacterial infections. Penicillin is produced from the bacteria Penicillium notatum.
There are different types of penicillin which are group based on their effectiveness.
Penicillin VK and Penicillin G are natural Penicillin
- Penicillin VK – It is used to fight against bacterial infections. Example: Ear infection.
- Penicillin G – More effective against gram positive and gram negative cocci bacterial infections. Example: susceptible bacterial infections in the stomach.
Strain improvement in antibiotic or drug production.
Genetic engineering is a set of techniques which are used to modify the biological characteristics of various living organisms. Example: Recombinant DNA technology, Microinjection, etc.
Recombinant DNA technology helps in producing genetically improved antibiotic strain. The wild strain of microorganism is transformed into the mutant strain in order to increase the yield and quality of antibiotics. The improvement of biosynthetic pathway design and recombinant DNA techniques can be achieved in order to improve the antibiotic production.
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