Recombinant DNA technology is the process that involves the introduction of a foreign piece of DNA into the genome which contains our genes of interest. This gene which is introduced is the recombinant gene and the technique is called the recombinant DNA technology. Inserting the desired gene into the genome of the host is not as easy as it sounds. The ultimate aim of this process is to obtain desirable protein.
Let’s learn how to obtain the foreign gene product using a bioreactor.
Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product
In recombinant technologies, the desired genes for administration is selected, followed by a selecting a perfect vector into which the desired gene has to be integrated and recombinant DNA formed. Once this foreign DNA is inserted, it is multiplied and ultimately desirable protein is produced. And at last, it has to be maintained in the host and carried forward to the offspring. For the production of the desired protein, the gene encodes for it needs to be expressed. This happens only under optimized conditions. Not only the target protein has to be expressed but has to be produced on a large scale.
The recombinant cells can be multiplied in large scale using a continuous culture system. Here the cells are cultured in a large vessel and the medium is refreshed on a regular interval to maintain the optimum conditions. This helps to culture a large mass of the desired protein. This was achieved by the development of bioreactor.
A bioreactor helps to produce a large volume of culture. The bioreactor is a large vessel where the different cells such as human or plant, or animal cell are used to culture new biological products. It provides optimum conditions like temperature, pH, substrate, oxygen, etc required for the culturing of desired products. Simple stirred-tank bioreactor and sparged stirred-tank bioreactor are the two types bioreactors used for this purpose.
Downstream processing is a sequential step in which the isolation, purification, preservation of final products are done before it is marketed. In this stage, the final product is formulated with additives like preservatives, colors, etc, followed by clinical trials.
For more details on bioreactor and downstream processing, visit BYJU’S.