Brain Diseases

Brain Diseases

The brain is that organ which controls almost all functions of the body. It is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. The brain is made up of 100 billion nerves that communicate trillions of connections. It is the main organ of the central nervous system which is located in the head, protected by the skull.

Brain constitutes three main parts viz. forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Forebrain consists of the thalamus, cerebrum, and hypothalamus. The midbrain is divided into tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain consists of pons, cerebellum, and medulla. Any damage to the brain or its components leads to many brain diseases or disorders.

List of Brain Diseases

List of Brain Diseases

Blunt trauma

Blunt trauma is often; caused by brain injuries. Brain tissue, neurons, and nerves might be damaged by trauma. This results in the brain’s inability to communicate with the rest of the body.

Below are a few examples of brain injuries:

  • Blood clots.
  • Hematomas.
  • Contusions.
  • Swelling inside the skull.
  • Concussions.
  • Strokes.

Symptoms of Blunt trauma

Symptoms of brain injury include:

  • Bleeding from the ear.
  • Difficulty in speech.
  • Memory loss.
  • Paralysis.
  • Numbness.
  • Vomiting.

Treatment of Blunt trauma

Treatment depends on the type and severity of the injury. Treatment of brain injury includes

  • Medication.
  • Brain surgery to repair or remove damaged tissues.
  • Rehabilitation measures like physical therapy, speech, language therapy and psychiatry.

Brain tumors

The brain tumor  is classified into

  • Primary brain tumors.
  • Secondary brain tumors.

Primary brain tumors are very dangerous which are formed or emerged in the brain. Secondary brain tumors are formed in some other part of the body and are spread to the brain. The specific cause of brain tumor is still unknown.

Symptoms of the Brain tumor 

Symptoms of the brain tumor depend on the location and size of the tumor. General symptoms of the brain tumor include:

  • Headaches.
  • Vomiting.
  • Seizures.
  • Tingling sensation in your arms.
  • Nausea.
  • Problems related to hearing, speech or vision.

Treatment of the Brain tumor 

Treatment for the brain tumor depends on location and size of the tumor. Treatment practices include:

  • Surgery.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative disease is a condition that causes the human brain and nerves to deteriorate over time. Some diseases like Alzheimer’s, Tay – Sachs may result. Common neurodegenerative diseases include:

  • Huntington’s disease.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms of the Neurodegenerative disease

Common symptoms of the neurodegenerative disease include:

  • Memory loss.
  • Apathy.
  • Anxiety.
  • Mood change.
  • Agitation.

There is no specific cure for neurodegenerative diseases but treatment could be availed which help to reduce the symptoms.

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Practise This Question

Dissociation curve shifts to the right when: