Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's Hierarchy Maslow’s Hierarchy

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was proposed by a humanistic psychologist, Abraham Maslow in 1943. He proposed this theory in a paper in Psychological Review entitled “A Theory of Human Motivation”. Further, he subsequently extended the concept by including the observation on human behaviour.

The theory parallelly justifies many other theories of the psychological development of humans and focuses on the stages that assist growth in humans. In this theory, Maslow relies on physiological terms like self-transcendence, self-actualization, esteem, belongingness, safety, physiological needs.

This theory also includes the biological and humanistic approaches to human personality.  There are different biological factors that influence human personality. The connection between Maslow’s theory and biological factors would explain the aspect of humanistic theory and helps to explain the biological aspects of personality.

 Also Read: Evolutionary Biology

The Hierarchy

In 1954, Maslow’s theory was fully explained in his book Motivation and Personality. The theory became very popular in many areas of subjects like science, management, sociology research, and psychology.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is displayed like a pyramid with the most fundamental need at the bottom, while the highest on the top. According to the theory, Maslow explains that there are four needs like

  1. Physiological needs.
  2. Esteem.
  3. Love.
  4. Deficiency needs.

All these four needs are required to match the fundamental requirement of a human being. This theory further states that the most basic level of need strengthens the desire in human personality.

The original Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has five-stage models, and it is briefly explained below.

Stage:1 – Biological and Physiological Needs. 

Air, Water, Food, Warmth, Shelter, Sleep and Sex.

Stage:2 – Safety Needs.               

Freedom from Fear, Protection from Natural Elements, Law and Order, Security and Stability.

Stage:3 – Love and Belonging Needs.         

Love, Friendship, Affection, Trust and Acceptance, Intimacy, Receiving and Giving, Affiliating and being part of a Family or Friends or Work.

Stage:4-Esteem Needs.   

Self-Esteem, Independence, Mastery, Dominance, Achievement, Prestige, Status Self-Respect

Stage:5-Self-Actualization Needs.                                             

Self-Fulfilment, Seeking Personal Growth and Realizing Personal Potential.

However, in the 1960s and 1970s, the five-stage model has been changed during the development of the theory and marked it to eight-stage model.

Stage:1 – Biological and Physiological Needs.                       

Drink, Food, Air, Warmth, Shelter, Sleep, and Sex.

Stage:2 – Safety Needs.                                                                        

Freedom from Fear, Protection from Natural Elements, Law and Order, Security and Stability.

Stage:3 – Love and Belonging Needs.                                                 

Love, Friendship, Affection, Trust and Acceptance, Intimacy, Receiving and Giving, Affiliating and being part of a Family or Friends or Work.

Stage:4-Esteem Needs.   

Self-Esteem, Independence, Mastery, Dominance, Achievement, Prestige, Status Self-Respect

Stage:5-Cognitive Needs.                                                     

Exploration, Curiosity, Understanding and Knowledge and Predictability.

Stage:6-Aesthetic Needs.                                                                     

Search for Beauty, Appreciation, etc.

Stage:7-Self-Actualization Needs.                                                       

Rich Experiences, Self-Fulfillment, Realizing Personal Potential and Seeking Personal Growth.

Stage:8-Transcendence Needs:

Being helpful for others to achieve self-actualization.

Learn more in detail about Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and other related Biology topics at  BYJU’S Biology

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