Renal Calculi

Renal Calculi or commonly called as Kidney Stones caused by intake of low fluid. It occurs when a solid mass of crystal called stones occur in a urinary tract. Development of a solid piece of a material or a kidney stone i.e. related to increased excretion of stone-forming components. Some of these components include uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and oxalate. These stones originate in the kidney and exit through the urine system.

Kidney Stone

A solid mass or small stone may not cause any sign and symptoms until it starts moving toward the uterus. Once the size of the stone exceeds more than 0.2 inches one may experience severe pain in the abdomen or lower back as the stone may cause blockage of a ureter.

Signs and Symptoms of Renal Calculi

The signs and symptoms develop when a kidney stone passes into the ureter. Beneath are some symptoms of kidney stones.

  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Sweating.
  • Brown, Red and Pink Urine.
  • Foul smelling urine.
  • Cloudy Urine.
  • Experiencing pain during urination.
  • Vomiting and Nausea.
  • Restlessness.
  • Severe pain in the ribs.
  • Urinary Urgency.
  • Discharge of blood in the urine.

Risk Factors for Renal Calculi

Dehydration is one of the main factors in stone formation. High intake of animal protein (egg, chicken, meat) increases the risk of kidney stone formation. When more animal proteins are consumed, it creates an acid load leading to high excretion of uric acid and calcium in turn leading to the reduction of citric acid. Urinary excretion of other acidic metabolites and the formation of stone are by acidifying acids. Low urinary citrate promotes the formation of kidney stone.

It is not the only electrolyte that is responsible for the formation of stones but also intakes of more vitamin D and calcium as a dietary supplement have the higher risk of developing kidney stones. For instance, high dietary sodium may increase by increasing urinary calcium excretion thus increasing the risk of stone formation.

Prevention and Dietary Measures for Renal Calculi

Prevention measures depend upon the type of stone formation. Rehydration the body with drinking lots of fluid would help people consisting of calcium stones. Some are stated below:

  • Moderate intake of calcium.
  • Limit consumption of soft drinks and sodium.
  • Increase intake of fluid and citric acid.
  • Avoid intake of vitamin and minerals in large dosage.

Treatment for Renal Calculi


Allopurinol is one of the best treatments to reduce kidney stone recurrences. This drug can also be used with people hyperuricemia or gout, calcium stones and hyperuricosuria.

This treatment interferes with the production of uric acid in the liver. This drug is adjusted to minimize the urinary excretion of uric acid.

To learn more about renal calculi and other kidney disorders, visit us at BYJU’S.

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