Renal Calculi

Renal Calculi, also called Kidney Stones, are a solid mass of crystals that block the urinary tract.  These crystals are primarily formed when calcium and oxalate coalesce. These stones originate in the kidney and exit through the urine system.

Kidney Stone

Most stones may not cause any sign and symptoms until it starts moving towards the uterus. Once the size of the stone exceeds more than 0.2 inches, one may experience severe pain in the abdomen or lower back as a result of a blocked ureter. Some have even stated that the pain is worse than that of childbirth

Signs and Symptoms of Renal Calculi

The signs and symptoms develop when a kidney stone passes into the ureter. Beneath are some symptoms of kidney stones.

  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Sweating.
  • Brown, Red and Pink Urine.
  • Foul-smelling urine.
  • Cloudy Urine.
  • Experiencing pain during urination.
  • Vomiting and Nausea.
  • Restlessness.
  • Severe pain in the ribs.
  • Urinary Urgency.
  • Discharge of blood in the urine.

Risk Factors for Renal Calculi

Dehydration is one of the main factors in stone formation. High intake of animal protein (egg, chicken, meat) also increases the risk of kidney stone formation. When more animal proteins are consumed, it creates an acid load leading to high excretion of uric acid and calcium in turn, leading to the reduction of citric acid. Urinary excretion of other acidic metabolites and the formation of stone are by acidifying acids. Low urinary citrate promotes the formation of kidney stone.

It is not the only electrolyte that is responsible for the formation of stones, but also intakes of more vitamin D and calcium as a dietary supplement have a higher risk of developing kidney stones. For instance, high dietary sodium may increase by increasing urinary calcium excretion, thus increasing the risk of stone formation.

Prevention and Dietary Measures for Renal Calculi

Prevention measures depend upon the type of stone formation. Rehydrating the body with drinking lots of fluid would help people having calcium stones. Some are stated below:

  • Moderate intake of calcium.
  • Limit consumption of soft drinks and sodium.
  • Increase intake of fluid and citric acid.
  • Avoid intake of vitamin and minerals in large dosage.

Treatment for Renal Calculi


Allopurinol is one of the best treatments to reduce kidney stone recurrences. This drug can also be used with people having hyperuricemia or gout, calcium stones and hyperuricosuria.

This treatment interferes with the production of uric acid in the liver. This drug is adjusted to minimize the urinary excretion of uric acid.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What are kidney stones?

Kidney stones are solid masses of crystals that form in the urinary tract. These crystals are primarily formed when calcium and oxalate coalesce in the kidneys.

2. What are the signs and symptoms of renal calculi?

Common symptoms of kidney stones include:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Sweating.
  • Vomiting and Nausea.
  • Restlessness.
  • Severe pain in the ribs.

To learn more about renal calculi and other kidney disorders, visit us at BYJU’S.


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