Bacteria can reproduce both by sexual and asexual modes of reproduction.
Bacteria are unicellular, microscopic organisms, which have been grouped into prokaryotic, which means the absence of a nucleus. These microscopic organisms reproduce by both the Sexual and Asexual methods. Sexual reproduction in bacteria occurs in the form of genetic recombination and the asexual reproduction occurs by the formation of endospores.
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Sexual Reproduction in Bacteria
Sexual Reproduction in Bacteria is usually carried out in three ways:
- Transformation – In this process, the DNA from the capsulated bacteria is transferred into a non-capsulated bacteria.
- Transduction – In this process, the DNA is transferred from one bacterial cell into another bacterial cell with the help of a bacteriophage. This process is known to occur in several bacterial species such as Escherichia, Micrococcus, Salmonella, etc.
- Conjugation – It is a process in which the genetic material of a bacterial cell of a particular strain is transferred from a donor or male into that of another bacterial cell recipient or female of a different strain. The donor cells are known to possess a sex factor or F factor and the recipient cell does not have this factor and hence it is described as F- strain.
Asexual Reproduction in Bacteria
Binary Fission – It is one of the most common and simple methods of asexual reproduction in bacteria. In this process of asexual reproduction, the nucleus of a parent cell divides into two, leading to two equal-sized daughter cells.
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