Blood Group Test

Blood Group Test

We all should be aware of our blood groups. It plays a very important role when it comes to having a blood transfusion. Knowing our blood group help us to select appropriate blood for transfusion either during any emergencies or accidents.

Here is a simple and easy experiment to find out our blood type sitting at home with the help of a Blood Group Test Kit.

A human blood cell includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. All these blood cells play a significant role in transportation, protection and regulation. Blood groups are mainly determined by the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red blood cells or erythrocytes. Both antigens and antibodies are the protein molecules which functions as the body’s natural defence. This is the reason blood transfusion from the wrong blood group can be life-threatening.

The four major blood groups are: A, B, AB and O. The blood grouping system was discovered in the year 1901 by Karl Landsteiner- an Austrian biologist and immunologist.

Blood group testing

Aim

The main purpose of conducting this experiment is to understand the basic concept of the ABO blood group system and to know our blood group and type.

Materials Required

  • Toothpicks
  • Blood sample
  • Alcohol Swabs
  • Blood Lancet
  • Clean glass slide
  • Sterile cotton balls
  • Biohazard disposal container
  • Monoclonal Antibodies (Anti-A, B, and D)

All these equipment will be readily available in a blood test tool kit.

Procedure

  • Take a clean glass slide and draw three circles on it.
  • Unpack the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit. In the first circle add Anti-A, to the second circle add Anti-B and to the third circle add Anti-D with the help of a dropper.
  • Keep the slide aside safely without disturbing.
  • Now wipe the ring finger with the alcohol swabs and rub gently near the fingertip, where the blood sample will be collected.
  • Prick the ring fingertip with the lancet and a wipe off the first drop of the blood.
  • As blood starts oozing out, allow it to fall on the three circles of the glass slide by gently pressing the fingertip.
  • Apply pressure on the site where it was pricked and to stop blood flow. Use the cotton ball if required.
  • Mix the blood sample gently with the help of a toothpick and wait for a minute to observe the result.

Conclusion

Here is the chart which predicts the different types of blood groups along with its Rh factor.

Blood Type    A    B    O    AB
Rh positive    A+    B+    O+    AB+
Rh negative    A-    B-    O-    AB-

Precautions

Discard the alcohol swabs, lancet, cotton balls and toothpick after their use. Drop all the materials, including the glass slide into the Biohazard disposal container after observing the result.

As mentioned above, there are four major blood groups and eight different blood types, collectively called the ABO Blood Group System. The groups are based on the presence or absence of  two specific antigens and antibodies– A and B:

  1. Group A has the A antigen and B antibody.
  2. Group B has the B antigen and the A antibody.
  3. Group AB has A and B antigens but neither A nor B antibodies.
  4. Group O doesn’t have A or B antigens but has both A and B antibodies.

Other than this, there is a third kind of antigen called the Rh factor. Based on the presence or absence of this antigen (Rh factor), the four blood groups are classified into eight different blood types:

  1. A positive – Presence of Rh+
  2. A negative- Presence of Rh-
  3. B positive- Presence of Rh+
  4. B negative- Presence of Rh-
  5. AB positive- Presence of Rh+
  6. AB negative- Presence of Rh-
  7. O positive- Presence of Rh+
  8. O negative- Presence of Rh-

Important Questions on  Blood Group Test:

  • What is a blood group test?

A blood group test is a simple test used to determine the blood group of an individual. It is also called as the ABO typing.

  • How many types of blood groups are there?

There are four major blood groups and are called as the ABO Blood Group System. The types of blood groups are:

  1. Blood Group A
  2. Blood Group B
  3. Blood Group AB
  4. Blood Group O.
  • Which Blood group is called the universal donor and recipient?

Type O blood group is called the universal donor and can donate blood to recipients of any blood type. This is because type O blood group neither have A or B on the surface of the red blood cells.

Type AB blood group is called the universal recipient and can receive blood from the donors of any blood type. This is because type AB blood group have both A and B  antigens on the surface of the red blood cells.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the blood groups types, tests and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology

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