Our blood cell includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It plays a significant role in transportation, protection and in regulation. Blood groups are mainly determined by the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red blood cells or erythrocytes. Both antigens and antibodies are the protein molecules which functions as body’s natural defense. This is the reason blood transfusion from the wrong blood group can be life-threatening.
The four major blood groups are: A, B, AB and O. The blood grouping system was discovered by Austrian biologist and immunologist Karl Landsteiner in the year 1901.
The main purpose of conducting this experiment is to understand the basic concept of ABO blood group system.
Clean glass slide
Sterile cotton balls
Biohazard disposal container
Monoclonal Antibodies (Anti-A, B, and D)
Take a clean glass slide and draw three circles on it.
Unpack the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit. In the first circle add Anti-A, to the second circle add Anti-B and to the third circle add Anti-D with the help of a dropper.
Keep the slide under disturb.
Now wipe the ring finger with the alcohol swabs and rub gently near the fingertip, where the blood sample will be collected.
Prick the ring fingertip with the Lancet and a wipe off the first drop of the blood.
As blood starts oozing out, allow it to fall on the three circles of the glass slide by gently pressing the fingertip.
Apply pressure on the site where it was pricked and to stop blood flow. Use the cotton ball if required.
Mix the blood sample gently with the help of a toothpick and wait for a while to observe the result.
Here is the chart which predicts the different types of blood groups along with its Rh factor.
Discard the alcohol swabs, lancet, cotton balls and toothpick after their use. Drop all the materials, including the glass slide into the Biohazard disposal container after observing the result.
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