The human reproductive system is a combination of external and internal organs pertaining to the reproductory processes in both males and females. Reproduction is a fundamental characteristic which helps entities to produce new offsprings by transferring genetic information. The male reproductive system has 2 major parts – The Penis and the testes. The sperms are produced in the testes. In males, the urethra and the penis belongs to the reproductive system as well as the urinary system. The testes are provided in an external pouch-like structure known as the scrotum. In the scrotum, the temperature is slightly cooler than the body temperature in order to promote sperm production. In the female reproductive system, the external structure is formed by the clitoris, labia majora, labia minora and the Bartholin’s glands. The most important internal organs in the female reproductive system are the ovaries, uterus and the vagina, which receives the semen(solution containing sperm) from the male reproductive system.
The ovary is a ductless reproductive gland that produces the female eggs(ova). The cervix attaches the vagina to the uterus while the uterus and the ovaries are connected through the fallopian tube. When hormones are produced, an egg or one ovum or more(in case of multiple births) is produced and released which passes through the fallopian tube during the stage of ovulation. In the event of sexual intercourse, the egg is fertilized by the sperm. But if the egg is not encountered by a sperm, it flows as part of the menstrual cycle every month. Usually, fertilization occurs in the oviducts, it can also occur in the uterus. The fertilized egg(zygote) then implants in the inner lining of the uterus where embryogenesis is initiated. Embryogenesis is the stage where the embryo is formed. After the implantation, the embryo begins to take shape, this phase is referred to as morphogenesis. The fetus is nourished and grows in the womb of the mother until it has developed completely and is able to thrive and grow in the outside world. This is the point when the cervix dilates, the uterine contractions propel the baby out of the birth canal. Learn more about the reproductive system and related topics by registering at BYJU’S.