About 12-15 % of couples of reproductive age are disturbed by infertility. What is the actual reason behind infertility? What are the different infertility treatments? We will discuss IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT in this section.
When a man or woman is incapable to contribute fully to pregnancy even after insecure coitus, it is referred as infertility. Reason for infertility may be known or unknown. Mostly ovulation variation in women is the main reason for infertility. In males, insufficient sperm production or genetic defects etc, are the reasons for infertility.
Infertility can be solved with the help of processes like in vitro fertilization (IVF), zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) etc.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a collection of medical manipulation methods to circumvent infertility. The methods include gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), in vitro fertilization (IVF), zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT), embryo transfer (ET), etc. These all methods aim to achieve ovulation or spermatogenesis; to increase pregnancy probability to its full term. Cost of treatment and time consumption are counted as two disadvantages of ART.
In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization is the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In vitro fertilization, as its name-fertilization is done by fusing ova from female donor and sperm from the male donor outside the body under strict laboratory conditions. This results in a zygote or famously known as test tube baby. After the embryo culturing, an embryo is transferred to the uterus of the mother. This method is commonly done in case of women with damaged or clogged Fallopian tubes.
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
Zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT), also known as Tubal Embryo Transfer is analogous to IVF. ZIFT is an ART procedure where fertilization happens in a laboratory. The thus formed zygote is then conveyed to the Fallopian tube of the mother using laparoscopy. ZIFT proceeds as follow: egg retrieval from ovaries, fertilization, carrying the zygote into the uterine tubes for implantation and further development. ZIFT is not for women with abnormal uterine tubes.
Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Unlike IVF and ZIFT, GIFT is an in-vivo fertilization procedure where the gametes –sperm and ova are conveyed directly into the fallopian tube. In GIFT, fertilization and zygote formation is more natural as it takes place within the female body. However, this technique is carried out only if there is enough sperm count and minimum one fallopian tube is functional. GIFT is an alternative for IVF.
Achievements, accessibility, and easiness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have elevated the scope and expectations of infertile couples irrespective of the cause of infertility.
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