Minerals In Food

Along with carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and fats, minerals are also considered as an essential micronutrient, which is required by our body in small amounts. Among different types of minerals, only a few are considered as most important and essential for the proper functioning of our body. These include calcium,  iron, etc.

Here, in this article let us know more in detail about the minerals in food, its types, sources, and functions.

What are Minerals?

Minerals are the inorganic substances and the essential elements that the human body requires to function properly. Though mostly minerals are found in the soil, some of them are also found in different sources of food we eat.

The human body requires small amounts of minerals on a daily basis in order to build strong bones, muscles and to maintain the proper functioning of our body cells and tissues. Therefore, we all obtain these micronutrients from eating foods rich in minerals.

There are certain nutritional deficiency diseases which are caused by the deficiency of certain essential elements. Goitre, Osteoporosis, Anaemia, Hypomagnesaemia, Diarrhoea are few examples of mineral deficiency diseases.

Also Read: Mineral Nutrition

Types of Minerals

Our body does not require every mineral in equal amount. Some of them are utilized more than others. Based on the requirement of the body, there are two types of minerals in food:


Macrominerals are those minerals which are required in a fairly large amount, therefore, they are also called the major minerals.

Macrominerals include sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and sulfur. These minerals are very important for the proper functioning and metabolism of the body. They are essential minerals, as our body cannot produce these minerals and are obtained from a different food source.

The deficiency of these minerals results in serious ramifications on health. For example, the deficiency of calcium weakens the bones in the body, which causes serious troubles in the victim’s skeletal system, the deficiency of  Iodine results in goitre and other hormonal disorders, and the deficiency of sodium results in hyponatremia.

Trace minerals

Trace minerals are those minerals which are required in small amounts, therefore, they are also called the minor minerals. Trace minerals include iron, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, fluoride, cobalt and selenium.

Also Read: Vitamins and Minerals

Functions of Minerals

Following are some of the important functions of minerals in food:

Minerals Functions
  1. Helps blood clotting.
  2. Helps muscle contraction and nerve function.
  3. Essential for building strong and healthy bones.
  1. Maintains proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of our body fluids.
  1. Formation of red blood cells.
  2. Helps with the functioning of the nervous system.
  1. Promotes normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
  2. Helps in the proper functioning of brain functions.
  3. Involved in normal growth and development of cells.
  1. Helps in transporting oxygen to all parts of the body.
  2. Produces and stores the energy for further metabolisms.
  1. Provides structure for the healthy bones.
  2. Produces energy from the food molecules.
  3. Maintains proper functioning of muscle and nervous system.
  1. Helps maintain water balance.
  2. Controls nerve impulse transmissions.
  1. Maintains cellular osmotic pressure.
  2. Helps in maintaining blood volume and blood pressure and the fluid balance in the body.
  1. Involved in protein synthesis.
  2. Protects your cells from damage.
  3. Helps in promoting the loosening and shedding of Skin.
  1. Helps the body to store and use energy.
  2. Works with calcium in the formation of strong healthy bones and teeth.
  1. Controls nerve impulses and muscle contractions.
  2. Helps in maintaining fluid balance in the body.
  3. Maintains proper functioning of muscle and nervous system.
  1. Aids in wound healing.
  2. Supports the immune system.
  3. Helps in the formation of strong bones.
  4. Controls the functioning of the sense organs in the nervous system.
  5. Important and the essential process of cell division and reproduction.

Sources of Minerals

Sources of minerals in food

The food which we eat includes a wide variety of mineral sources. Listed below are the different sources of minerals in food:

Minerals Food Sources
Calcium  Almonds, Carrots, Milk, Broccoli, Canned Fish, Papaya, Garlic, and Cashew.
Chloride  Table Salt, Soy Sauce, liver Unprocessed Meat, Milk and Peanuts
Copper  Crab, Lobster, Mussels, Oysters, Nuts, Wholegrains and Yeast extract
Iodine  Seafood, Seaweed and Iodised salt
Iron  Meat, Eggs, Beans, Baked Potato, Dried Fruits, Green Leafy Vegetables,  Whole and Enriched Grains
Magnesium  Honey, Almonds, Seafood, Tuna, Chocolates, Pineapple, Pecans, Artichokes, and Green Leafy Vegetables.
Manganese  Cereals, Nuts, Oils, Vegetables and Wholegrains,
Sodium  Table Salt, Cheese, Milk, Soy Sauce, and Unprocessed Meat
Sulfur  Cheese, Eggs, Nuts, Turnips, Onions, Fish, Wheat Germ, Cucumbers, Corn,  Cauliflower, and Broccoli,
Phosphorus  Mushrooms, Meat, Cashews, Oats, Fish, Beans, Squash, Pecans, Carrots, and Almonds.
Potassium  Spinach, Apples, Oranges, Tomatoes, Papaya, Bananas, Lemons, Celery, Mushrooms, Pecans, Raisins, Pineapple, Rice, Cucumbers, Strawberries, Figs, Brussels Sprouts, and Legumes.
Zinc  Beef, Pork, Dark Meat, Chicken, Cashews, Almonds, Peanuts, Beans, Split Peas, and Lentils

Too much of anything is dangerous. Similarly, Excess of minerals intake might lead to certain abnormalities in the body.

  • Too much calcium in our diet may cause constipation and kidney problems.
  • Excess of zinc intake causes diarrhoea, heart problems, kidney malfunctioning, vomiting.
  • Too much sodium in blood cells increases the risk of stroke, other heart-related disorders and Hypernatremia.
  • Excess of iron intake results in sexual problems in males, and other disorders related to the functioning liver, digestive tract, etc.

A balanced diet prevents mineral deficiencies. The use of vitamin and mineral supplements should be discouraged to prevent any adverse effects.

Also Read: Minerals

For more information on minerals in food, its types, functions and sources of minerals, keep visiting BYJU’S Biology.   You can also download BYJU’S app for further reference.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the important minerals found in food?

Some of the important minerals found in food are:

  • Iodine
  • Calcium
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • phosphorus
  • Zinc

What are the two types of minerals?

The two types of minerals include:

  • Macrominerals- That are required in large amounts by the body.
  • Trace Minerals- That are required in small amounts by our body.

What are the important sources of minerals in food?

The important sources of minerals include:

  • Carrot
  • Spinach
  • Cereals
  • Nuts
  • Milk
  • Beans

Name the food sources rich in iron.

The food sources rich in iron include:

  • Meat
  • Beans
  • Eggs
  • Fruits
  • Leafy Vegetables

How does calcium strengthen our body?

Calcium helps in building strong bones. It is also required by muscles, nerves and heart to function properly. Some studies suggest that calcium might be beneficial in preventing cancer, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Why is phosphorus important to our body?

Phosphorus helps in building strong bones and teeth. It also helps in removing waste in our kidneys. It manages the storage and usage of energy by our body. It produces DNA and RNA and helps in the repair of tissue and cells.

Which food products provide us with manganese?

Some food products that are a good source of manganeses are:

  • whole wheat bread
  • brown rice
  • nuts
  • leafy vegetables
  • fruits
  • dark chocolate

What are trace minerals?

Trace minerals are those that are required by our body in small amounts. These include iron, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, cobalt, etc.


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