Poliomyelitis or called as Polio is a viral disease that destroys the nerve cells present in the spinal cord causing paralysis of some parts of the body or causing muscle weakness. It is a contagious disease affecting the nervous system and is caused by poliovirus.
Poliovirus can also be transmitted from one person to another through the fecal matter. It even spreads through contaminated foods. The virus mainly affects the children within the age of 5. The body parts which are infected by this disease are legs, neck, head. There is no any cure for polio; hence it has to be prevented by taking polio vaccine at the early age.


There are three types of polio as listed below :

  • Spinal Polio– It is kind of polio that affects the spine system. The disease does not affect the brain or the spinal cord. This is not a severe form of the disease. It does not cause any symptoms in the affected person.
  • Bulbar Polio– Bulbar polio affects the brainstem or the central nervous system. It does not cause paralysis of the body.
  • Bulbospinal– This form of polio affects the spine as well as the brainstem. This Poliomyelitis results in Paralysis of the body parts and results in severe disorders. This disease is even known as a Paralytic form of polio.

Symptoms of Poliomyelitis

The initial symptoms of Poliomyelitis are given below-

  • Severe fever
  • Excess fatigue
  • Vomiting sensation
  • Pain in limbs
  • Sore throat
  • Frequent headaches
  • Back pain, leg pain
  • Stiffness in the muscles and neck areas
  • Limb deformities
  • Paralysis of some parts of the body
  • Sleeplessness
  • Develop weakness in the body
  • Problems with breathing
  • Drowsiness
  • Swelling in the throat

Preventing PoliomyelitisPoliomyelitis is a disease that cannot be cured. One can only prevent the disease by proper medical treatments. Some of the measures includes the use of antibiotics. The best way to prevent it is by vaccinating your child with polio vaccine in early age. The other treatments include taking bed rest, using pain killers and the use of portable ventilators.

To learn more about polio and other infectious disease, visit Byju’s.

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