Soil and its Formation
The definition of soil is something we are all well familiar with. The soil varies according to its structure and composition. Generally, it can be defined as the material found on the surface of the earth that is composed of organic and inorganic material. We have various soil types like clay, loam, silt, sand, etc. Soil consists of fine rock particulate of different sizes. These are derived from the sedimentary rocks and weathered igneous rocks after environmental factors such as rain, heat, cold, wind, etc. have acted upon the rock particles. This caused them to disintegrate into smaller particles which on the assemblage in flat or shallow surfaces eventually come to make up the soil. Soil formation has been going on on this planet for a very long time, about billions of years ago. It happens to be a process that will proceed as long as this planet exists.
Absorption Of Water in Soil
Take the example of sandy soil, which has coarse or larger soil particles which is known for aeration but not for water retention. On the other hand, clay soils have colloidal particles that can hold water, but are very poor in aeration. Rock particles of large size hold no water between them. In fact, such soil constituting rock particles that hold no water in between them is not appropriate for the development of the root system. This is because the holding capacity of the soil is abysmal. However, if you are wondering which type of soil retains the maximum amount of water, then the soil is loam. Loam provides good aeration and proper capillary spaces to hold water. It is the blend of sand, clay, and decomposed organic material known as humus. Hence, this soil is deemed to be the best soil for the growth of plants since it has good water holding capacity. A lot of other factors like infiltration rate, permeability, percolation etc. affect the water absorption of soil too.