Biopiracy is a practice commercially exploiting naturally occurring genetic material or biochemical. Most of the indigenous people possess a traditional knowledge that mainly comprises of genetic diversity and biological feature of the natural environment from generation to generation. Some the traditional knowledge that is relevant to global survival includes the following components.
- Medicinal Plants.
- Farming or Agriculture.
- Varieties of Food crops.
The essential components for the survival of rural and indigenous people include conservation of habitat, species, and biodiversity.
Examples of Biopiracy
- Biopiracy of African Super-sweet Berries: Pentadiplandra brazzein is a plant found in the west of South Africa. It is a vital source of protein known as Brazzein. Here people use it as a low-calorie sweetener. It is two thousand times sweeter than sugar. Recent development includes isolation of gene encoding brazzein that has been sequenced and patented in the USA.
- Patenting of Azadirachta indica – Neem: Since ancient times, Neem has been used and proved to useful in several ways. Indians have shared their knowledge regarding neem across the globe. Relevant to this in the year ninety ninety-four(1994), U.S. Department of Agriculture and WR Grace received a European patent that included various methods that are used for controlling fungal infections in plants by using a composition extracted from neem.
- Biopiracy of the Enola bean: It was named after a wife of a person who-who patented it in 1999. Enola bean is a variety of Mexican yellow bean. Farmers in north Mexico depends on sales of this bean. patent-holder subsequently sued a large number of importers of Mexican yellow beans. As a result, it caused an economic damage to farmers. A lawsuit was filed by farmers and the result was in favor to farmers as ruled by USPTO.
- The rosy periwinkle: The rosy periwinkle was originally found in Madagascar.Now it has been introduced to several other tropical countries across the globe. This implements that researchers can obtain knowledge from one nation and plant samples in other nations.
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