Cancer is one of the most known diseases that affect humans in a moral manner. Every year, around 10 million people die due to cancer globally. Let us discuss on cancer, causes of cancer, symptoms, detection, and treatment of cancer.
In humans, cell differentiation and proliferation are highly manipulated and regularized by cell division mechanism. Normal cells prevent the uncontrolled growth of specific property which is called contact inhibition. A breakdown of this cell cycle mechanism in normal cells leads to the formation of cancer cells. As a result, tumors are formed.
Types of Cancer
There are two types of tumors usually found. These are mentioned below:
- Benign tumors – These tumors do not spread to the other parts of the body.
- Malignant tumors- These tumors grow quickly and spread to other normal tissues of the body. This property is called as metastasis.
Example: Breast cancer. It is a type of cancer commonly found in females. It develops from the breast tissues.
Causes of Cancer
Many factors are involved in the causes of cancer like:
- Physical factors – For instance, X – rays and gamma rays.
- Chemical factors – For instance, Tobacco and smoke.
- Biological factors – For instance, Viral oncogenes, proto oncogenes and cellular oncogenes.
The above factors are called carcinogens.
Diagnosis of Cancer
The detection and diagnosis of cancer are very important before it spreads to other parts of the body. Identification of cancer genes is very valuable to prevent cancer.
The following methods are used to detect cancer –
- Histopathological studies of tissue.
- Radiography technique.
- Computed tomography.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
- Molecular biology techniques.
Treatment of Cancer
Commonly, three types of treatment are available for cancer.
- Radiation therapy – In this therapy, radiation is used to kill the cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy – Chemotherapeutic drugs are used to kill the cancer cells.
Many chemical drugs have side effects in cancer patients like hair loss. So, interferons are injected into the cancer patient to develop the immunity against cancer.
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