Soil And Crops - Overview

What Is Soil?

Soil is formed as a result of the weathering process. Soil is a mixture of humus and rock particles. It is one of the natural resources and provides plants with all the nutrients required during photosynthesis. It is the natural habitat of many living organisms and is essential in agriculture. Soil consists of different layers such as:

  • Humus
  • Water
  • Clay
  • Sand
  • Gravel

Different parts of India have different types of soils. Major types of soil are:

  • Clayey Soil
  • Loamy Soil
  • Sandy Soil

The formation of soil is affected by external factors such as temperature, wind, rainfall, humidity, and sunlight. These factors are crucial in bringing about changes in the texture and quality of the soil. The type of crop that would be grown using a particular type of soil is determined by the components of the soil and the climatic influence of a region.

The following table will help you understand different crops grown on different types of soil in a better way. This classification of soil is based on the particle size i.e, their texture.

Variants Loamy Soil Clayey Soil Sandy soil
Properties Consists of sand, clay, and silt Contains fine clay particles Contains little clay and more sand
Contains a lot of air Drains water easily Porous
Rich in humus and fertile Sticky Water retaining capacity is low
Retains water well Very little air present A lot of air present
Contains clay in tiny amounts


Rich in organic matter Low in nutrient content
Crops suitable for growing Cereals – Wheat, gram, Sugarcane, Jute, Vegetables Cereals – Wheat, gram, Paddy

Lentils, Pulses

Cactus, melon, coconut

Based on the colour and other attributes, soil can be classified into the following:

  • Red and yellow soil
  • Black soil
  • Alluvial soil
  • Laterite Soil
  • Arid soil
  • Mountain and forest soil
  • Desert soil
  • Saline and alkaline soils
  • Marshy and peaty soils

For more information on Soil and crops, please register at BYJU’S.

Further reading:

Soil Profile
Minerals In The Soil And Soil Pollution
Test your Knowledge on Soil And Crops - Overview!


Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published.