Soil And Crops - Overview

Soil is formed as a result of the weathering process. Soil is a mixture of humus and rock particles. It is one of the natural resources and provides plants all its nutrients required during photosynthesis. It is the natural habitat of many living organisms and is essential in agriculture. Soil consists of different layers such as:

  • Humus
  • Water
  • Clay
  • Sand
  • Gravel

Different parts of India have different types of soils. Major types of soil are:

  • Clayey Soil
  • Loamy Soil
  • Sandy Soil

Formation of soil is affected by external factors such as temperature, wind, rainfall, humidity, sunlight. These factors are crucial in bringing about changes in the texture and quality of the soil. The type of crop that would be grown using a particular type of soil is determined by the components of soil and climatic influence of a region.

The following table will help you understand different crops grown on different types of soil in a better way. This classification of soil is based on the particle size i.e, their texture.


Loamy Soil

Clayey Soil

Sandy soil


Consists of sand, clay, and silt

Contains fine clay particles

Contains little clay and more sand

Contains a lot of air

Drains water easily


Rich in humus and fertile


Water retaining capacity is low

Retains water well

Very little air present

A lot of air present

Contains clay in tiny amounts


Rich in organic matter

Low in nutrient content

Crops suitable for growing

Cereals – Wheat, gram, Sugarcane, Jute, Vegetables

Cereals – Wheat, gram, Paddy

Lentils, Pulses

Cactus, melon, coconut

Based on colour and other attributes, soil can be classified into the following:

  • Red and yellow soil
  • Black soil
  • Alluvial soil
  • Laterite Soil
  • Arid soil
  • Mountain & Forest soil
  • Desert soil
  • Saline and alkaline soils
  • Marshy and peaty soils

For more information on Soil and crops, please register at Byju’s.

Further reading:

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