What Is Soil?
Soil is formed as a result of the weathering process. Soil is a mixture of humus and rock particles. It is one of the natural resources and provides plants all its nutrients required during photosynthesis. It is the natural habitat of many living organisms and is essential in agriculture. Soil consists of different layers such as:
Different parts of India have different types of soils. Major types of soil are:
- Clayey Soil
- Loamy Soil
- Sandy Soil
Formation of soil is affected by external factors such as temperature, wind, rainfall, humidity, sunlight. These factors are crucial in bringing about changes in the texture and quality of the soil. The type of crop that would be grown using a particular type of soil is determined by the components of soil and climatic influence of a region.
The following table will help you understand different crops grown on different types of soil in a better way. This classification of soil is based on the particle size i.e, their texture.
|Variants||Loamy Soil||Clayey Soil||Sandy soil|
|Properties||Consists of sand, clay, and silt||Contains fine clay particles||Contains little clay and more sand|
|Contains a lot of air||Drains water easily||Porous|
|Rich in humus and fertile||Sticky||Water retaining capacity is low|
|Retains water well||Very little air present||A lot of air present|
|Contains clay in tiny amounts
|Rich in organic matter||Low in nutrient content|
|Crops suitable for growing||Cereals – Wheat, gram, Sugarcane, Jute, Vegetables||Cereals – Wheat, gram, Paddy
|Cactus, melon, coconut|
Based on colour and other attributes, soil can be classified into the following:
- Red and yellow soil
- Black soil
- Alluvial soil
- Laterite Soil
- Arid soil
- Mountain & Forest soil
- Desert soil
- Saline and alkaline soils
- Marshy and peaty soils
For more information on Soil and crops, please register at Byju’s.