Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually affecting lungs. Later it might spread to different parts of the body.

Types of Tuberculosis

They have been categorized into two types.

  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
  • Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: It is an endemic infection that involves the lungs. It is further divided into:

  • Primary Tuberculosis Pneumonia: Associated symptoms include coughing and high fever. It can also be witnessed in patients with HIV/AIDS.
  • Miliary Tuberculosis: It occurs due to a presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It spreads vigorously.
  • Latent Tuberculosis Infection: This infection is mainly seen in those patients having the TB bacteria within their body. This infection is mainly detected through the tuberculin skin test.

Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis: It is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. There are several types and they include:

  • Tuberculosis Meningitis
  • Osteal Tuberculosis
  • Lymph Node Disease
  • Renal Tuberculosis
  • Adrenal Tuberculosis.

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

Mainly two types of tests are conducted, and they are stated below:

Blood Test: Results of this analysis is available within a day. In this test, blood samples are collected, which then it is exposed to TB in laboratories.

Skin Test: It is a most common type of test. In this, a small sample of protein is injected under your skin. The place where you have been shot should not be scratched at any circumstances as it might cause the test result hard to read. The main aim of this state is that the location where you have been shot should not be swollen. That is if it is swollen more than five millimeters then it is a clear indication of TB infection.

 Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Causes of Tuberculosis

  •  It is acquired from an infected person that you work or lives with rather than a stranger but it cannot be contracted easily. It is contagious.
  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is one of the main causes. It is a pathogenic bacterial species. It comprises of four other types of TB-causing bacteria namely M. microti, M. canetti, M. bovis and M. africanum. These bacteria could be cultured even in laborites.
  • Infants and old age people are at the risk of catching TB.
  • Individuals with the weak immune system due to HIV, diabetes is quickly exposed to TB.

Treatment for Tuberculosis

Drug treatment is one of the most efficient ways to treat TB. For patients with Latent TB infection doctors prescribe an antibiotic called isoniazid, preventing latent infection from becoming active.

Active TB Diseases will be deadly if it is left untreated. The procedure involves in taking a combination of ethambutol, INH, priftin and pyrazinamide for a term of three months followed by a mix of IHN and pyrazinamide for 12 months.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the Tuberculosis.


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