The mode of reproduction by which new plants are produced without the reproductive unit of plants – flowers. This mode of reproduction occurs without the fusion of male and female gametes. Asexual reproduction produces new plants, which are the copies of the mother plant.
Asexual reproduction occurs in different kinds which includes the budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore formation.
Types of Asexual Reproduction
Budding is the mode of asexual reproduction, wherein a new plant is developed from an outgrowth plant, called a bud. A bud is generally formed due to cell division at one particular site.
For example, if you keep a potato for a long time, you can notice a number of small growths, which are commonly referred to as ‘eyes’. Each of them can be planted which will grow up like a clone of an original potato plant.
It is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants, in which new plants are produced from the vegetative parts of the plants, i.e. roots, stems or buds. Vegetative propagation in plants can occur both by naturally or also can be artificially induced by horticulturists.
The most common techniques of vegetative propagation are:
Stems – Runners are the stems which usually grow in a horizontal form above the ground. They have the nodes where the buds are formed. These buds usually grow into a new plant.
Roots – A new plant is developed from around, inflamed, modified roots called tubers. Example: Sweet Potato
Leaves – In some plants, detached leaves from the parent plant can be used to grow a new plant. They exhibit growth of small plants, called plantlets, on the edge of their leaves. Example: Bryophyllum.
This is a mode of asexual reproduction in which a new plant is produced from a portion of the parent plant. Each section or a part of the plants develop into a mature, fully grown individual. Some plants possess specialized structures for reproduction through fragmentation. This type of reproduction happens naturally where the small part of the plant fall off onto soil and then begin to grow up into a new plant. This mode is often used by nurseries and greenhouses to produce plants quickly.
Many plants and algae form spores in their life cycle. A spore is an asexual reproductive body, surrounded by a hard protective cover to withstand unfavorable conditions such as high temperature and low humidity. Under favorable conditions, the spores germinate and grow into new plants. Plants like moss and ferns use this mode of reproduction.
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