“Biomagnification or biological magnification is the process of accumulation of certain chemicals in living organisms to a concentration higher than that occurring in the inorganic, non-living environment.”
What is Biomagnification?
Biomagnification is the increase in contaminated substances due to the intoxicating environment. The contaminants might be heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and pesticides such as polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT.
These substances are taken up by the organisms through the food they consume. When the organisms in the higher food chain feed on the organisms in the lower food chain containing these toxins, these toxins get accumulated in the higher organisms.
Causes of Biomagnification
Following are the major causes of biomagnification:
The agricultural pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers and fungicides are very toxic and are released into the soil, rivers, lakes, and seas. These substances contain small amounts of heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, copper, lead and cadmium. These cause health issues in aquatic organisms and humans.
Manures and biosolids are processed industrially and contain contaminants like pharmaceuticals and personal care products. These substances have an adverse impact on the health of humans, animals, and wildlife.
The industries and factories release toxic substances that are released into the soil, lakes, oceans, and rivers. The gaseous emissions pollute the environment which enters into the food chain leading to biomagnification.
Mining Activities in the Ocean
Mining activities are carried out in the deep sea to extract metal like zinc, aluminium, cobalt, silver and gold. The mining process generates a large amount of sulphide and selenium deposits in water and destroys the oceans and coastal regions.
The level of toxicity is increased. These toxic substances are absorbed by the aquatic organisms higher in the food chain.
Also Read: Types of Pollution
Effects of Biomagnification
Following are the effects of biomagnification on living organisms and the environment:
Impact on Human Health
Biomagnification makes humans more prone to cancer, kidney problems, liver failure, birth defects, respiratory disorders, and heart diseases.
Effects on Reproduction and Development of Marine Creatures
The toxic chemicals accumulate in the important organs of aquatic organisms that affect their reproduction and development processes.
For eg., the shells of the eggs of the sea-birds are very thin that might get crushed by the birds themselves during incubation. Selenium and mercury destroy the reproductive organs of aquatic creatures.
Destruction of Coral Reefs
Cyanide that is used in leaching gold and fishing is the main cause of the destruction of coral reefs. Coral reefs are the dwelling and feeding grounds for many sea creatures. Their destruction affects the lives of many aquatic animals.
Disruption of Food Chain
The chemicals and toxins which are released into the water bodies disrupt the food chain. The small organisms absorb the toxins which are eaten up by larger animals. These toxins, thus, get accumulated in the higher level of organisms.
Also Read: Air, Water and Soil Pollution
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